Noether's theorems in classical mechanics associate symmetries of the laws governing a physical system to conservations laws of that system. For example,
Spatial translation symmetry => Conservation of momentum
Spatial rotation symmetry => Conservation of angular momentum
Time translation symmetry => Conservation of energy
Phase symmetry => Conservation of electric charge
Much later on, around 2008, a friend of mine working at Cambridge generalized Noether's result  to include non-smooth symmetries as well - showing how CPT (charge-parity-time) symmetry in the Dirac equation leads to new conserved quantities. Epic work.
When she died, the story I recall is that the New York Times printed a very short obituary that mentioned only her brief work as a teacher at Bryn Mawr. Einstein was horrified that such a luminary would receive so little recognition, and he responded by writing a glowing tribute which the Times promptly printed: http://www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/Obits2/Noether_Emmy_...
My understanding is that many of her peers recognized her -- it was the universities themselves that refused to properly hire her, etc.
In textbooks, the axioms and theorems seem so dry. It must have been exciting to be in those lectures though, discovering concepts of a new field of mathematics for the first time.
 The Mighty Mathematician You’ve Never Heard Of http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/27/science/emmy-noether-the-m...