If I understood correctly, the outcome is not the same. In a memory failure you get incorrect results. In a concurrent program, you get correct results but they might not be the same results every time (provided that there's more than one correct answer) or the computation that took us there might be different (in terms of timing, power consumption, etc).
Still seems the same to me in principle. For problems where there are multiple correct answers, probabilistic methods are frequently used to find them (e.g. genetic algorithms). All kinds of things can change timing and power consumption, especially when using a probabilistic method.