1. OpenCV 2.0 - C++, C, Python interfaces; BSD license - http://opencv.willowgarage.com/wiki/
2. FaceTracker - C/C++ API; "research purposes only", to download email Jason.firstname.lastname@example.org - http://web.mac.com/jsaragih/FaceTracker/FaceTracker.html
3. Method Art Image Clone - realtime cloning library (from gts, glew, glib); MIT license - http://methodart.blogspot.com/2011/07/fast-image-cloning-lib...
4. openFrameworks - C++ toolkit; MIT license - https://github.com/openframeworks/openFrameworks
5. FaceOSC (ofxFaceTracker) - active appearance model addon for openFrameworks; "open source" - https://github.com/kylemcdonald/ofxFaceTracker
"I imagine FaceOSC being used to prototype ideas surrounding face-based interaction. I created it because Jason Saragih, the researcher behind FaceTracker, uses an open source non-commercial license for his code. He asks that anyone who wants to use the code email him directly, as a way to keep track of the usage. This is great, but I know that one of the fastest ways to get cool stuff happening is to make new tools and research accessible to a wide audience. So I asked him if it would be ok to make a standalone app for people to prototype their ideas — even if they don't have access to the code. Everyone already 'speaks' OSC so I thought this would be the easiest way to get the technology out there. Eventually, if people need to integrate it into a single application, they can contact Jason directly and use my ofxFaceTracker addon to get started:
And if they need to go the commercial route, there’s FaceAPI
While I certainly appreciate all the open-source projects that allow commercial usage, I really think that a trend of projects using non-commercial or licensee-only licenses would do a lot of good, because as it stands I'd rather have the source code for every program I use even if I'm not allowed to share that code with someone who hasn't paid the original author.
I recognize that copyleft and all that is important and good, but I think we'd see much more source availability if people were less rabid about their demands for unlimited distribution. Unlimited distribution is rad but it greatly reduces the effective profitability of the product, and there's some software that just doesn't get made if it doesn't have some cash behind it.
The OSI was founded a couple of months after the invention of the term "open-source software", by the same people who invented the term. They aren't the ones who are "hijacking" it. You are. It's dishonest. Please stop doing it, and please stop attempting to rewrite history in order to justify your dishonest attempt to hijack the term. The people who read HN aren't so ignorant that you can fool them that way.
You can see on the first page results from 94, 95, 96 all used to refer to "open source" code, i.e., a program whose source code was available to users. That's just the first page. The term had gained sufficient prevalence to be mentioned in a press release from 1996. There's only one hit on the first page (for me, at least) that refers to "open source" in another context ("unable to open source file").
That's just the first page, there are many more pages of hits.
You can save yourself the trouble of looking through the many more pages of hits. I've done it before.
And there are lot of the dupes you're talking about, but if you filter those out in your search, you'll see that is not the only occurrence. Quickly sifting through, I found these:
From 1995 we have a guy asking for a "modeler with open source code."
1996 has Caldera advocating "an open-source code model" (it even has the hyphen in the right place!), as well as an essay about "Open Source Code and the Early Development of Unix." The former case is interesting because it explicitly defines open-source code as source code that is openly distributed, and clarifies that a small fee is required to sell derived products commercially. (So SCO actually claimed the term before OSI did!)
And 1997 has a discussion about whether "open source cryptography" is better than "proprietary … cryptography" (and in which "published" is used as a synonym for "open source").
So it appears that the term was much less common before OSI — but it was used to talk about source code you could read, long before they came along with their definition.
The word "source" is short for "source code."
any thing or place from which something comes,
arises, or is obtained;
Who's hijacking the term now?
It's not code that originates from a source that's "open" .. what does that even mean?
It means the source code is open to the public.
I think in that case both "open-source" and "code" are modifying "model", so it's still not the same thing.
> And 1997 has a discussion about whether "open source cryptography" is better than "proprietary … cryptography" (and in which "published" is used as a synonym for "open source").
That's from the spook community, which uses "open source" to mean "publicly known information", and they're talking about cryptosystems, not source code.
> The word "source" is short for "source code." They aren't exactly distinct things, so that is really splitting hairs.
Someone could have potentially used the word "source" as short for "source code" in the phrase "open source" before Chris Peterson did in that meeting, but I haven't found any cases of that happening. Not a single one.
The whole point is that the phrase "open source" now has a specific meaning not derivable from the meanings of its component words, much like "source code", "pro-choice", or "death row". If a Congressperson declares that they're "pro-choice" but votes to amend the Constitution to prohibit abortion, or someone claimed that they were fulfilling their contractual obligation to provide you with "source code" by giving you the SKUs they use to order office supplies, you'd be justifiably angry at the deception. If you find a quote from someone in 1958 using the term "pro-free-choice" to mean "opposed to racial segregation", it does not make any less dishonest a hypothetical use of the term "pro-choice" with that meaning today.
You can read the history at http://www.opensource.org/history. I wasn't at the meeting, but I was part of the community for years before that, and I was part of the email exchange that followed that led up to the formation of the OSI. Although I'm no fan of ESR, I can attest that the OSI folks' claim to have invented the term is legitimate and correct.
If you want to claim that OSI popularized the phrase and imbued it with a very specific meaning, you'd probably have a point, but I don't see how they could lay claim to ownership of such a generic term. At the very least it seems out of bounds to be accusing someone of being "dishonest" about it and "rewriting history".
Yet digging through Usenet, web, and mailing-list archives has not, so far, found a single example of anyone making that leap prior to the 1998 meeting.
Here's another one:
Frankly, it really is just baffling to me that you are defending this so aggressively to the point of accusing others of outright dishonesty when discussing it. Do you really think that appropriate?
That one is interesting. The most plausible interpretation is that it is actually a counterexample! He very likely means "source code" and not, say, "FTP site".
> Frankly, it really is just baffling to me that you are defending this so aggressively to the point of accusing others of outright dishonesty when discussing it. Do you really think that appropriate?
Yes. It's like "pro-choice" or like "organic farming": one group of people is using this term with a specific idiomatic meaning, and there are other people who want to associate themselves with that meaning in order to free-ride off the goodwill that comes with it, but without paying the price. An anti-abortion politician isn't "pro-choice" because they support school vouchers, an apricot sprayed with malathion isn't "organic" because it contains carbon compounds, and a free-for-noncommercial-use program isn't "open-source" because its source code isn't secret.
Ah, come on! You can't be serious.
"Source" in "Open Source" is short for "source code", and no other meaning of the word "source". The history page you link doesn't state it explicitly, but they do mention "source code" a few times, in addition to mentioning no other meaning of the word "source", so I think it's pretty reasonably to assume that these OSI people, like many programmers, when speaking about "source" were using it as a short for "source code".
Because really, a "source" (in the meaning of "origin") that is "open", what does that even mean? That things can flow from it? Sorry but you are also aware of the term "closed source" right? Except that, if nothing originates from it, it's no longer a source. Yet if you interpret it as "closed source code", it still makes sense.
I don't really see how your link to the opensource.org/history proves your point, either. In fact it strengthens the other point as well. Sure it shows they decided to name their new licensing scheme "Open Source" (where it seems to me, "Source", from the context to be short for "Source Code") -- even though people had (naturally) already been using the term "open" for source code that is publically available.
So you can make the point, that possibly, they were the first that shortened "open source code" to "open source" and using that as a brand, while at the same time hijacking the meaning to something much more strict (namely excluding of open non-commercial licenses).
In this particular, an interested party would only have to rewrite one library, instead of one library and one application on top of it. So it's a win, even if it's not GNU-certified Free Software.
We could have just as easily used asmlib https://code.google.com/p/asmlib-opencv/ but FaceTracker is superior in terms of speed, accuracy, and efficiency.
Having worked on this problem before, I know how tough it is to escape the uncanny valley when doing replacement, and these guys have really done impressively well at it (albeit with a fair amount of manual preprocessing and in controlled situations).
"The uncanny valley is a hypothesis in the field of robotics and 3D computer animation, which holds that when human replicas look and act almost, but not perfectly, like actual human beings, it causes a response of revulsion among human observers. The "valley" in question is a dip in a proposed graph of the positivity of human reaction as a function of a robot's human likeness."
I think this is the first time in my life that I've felt like I was living in a scifi novel.
A professor friend of mine Jeremy Bailenson at Stanford actually uses the Kinect to track facial movements and uses 3D models of others to create puppets in real-time. Even more interesting, he can morph your face with the person you're video conferencing with to create a feeling of commonality in them.
He actually wrote a book on it called Infinite Reality  which talks about all kinds of ways people will probably get manipulated in the future. He talks about things like mirroring movements (which he can do automatically in a video conference), looking into the eyes of every participant in a group video conference and other really interesting psychological hacks.
Also in the book, people started using more technology to cover for these problems, from software that would make you look "presentable" to a complete avatar that would simulate all the motions that one should do while on camera.
In the end, people just realize that no one is actually using the video part of the phone anymore, so they just stop using it and go back to audio-only.
So, as much as I think we will have the technology to fool someone as you mention, I don't think it will happen simply because no one will adopt that technology in the first place.
Kottke also comments on it: http://kottke.org/10/06/david-foster-wallace-on-iphone-4s-fa...
I see the value in having the occasional video conference, especially when talking with family or friends that are not geographically close. But I still see it as an attention cost. I would be slightly annoyed if someone that I'm video-chatting with decided to treat it as "not a big deal".
I had a skype call with a business associate, and it was quite bad when I realized that I was talking to him without wearing a shirt, and that the camera started by itself. Now I can only hope that I was fast enough to cancel the video before it actually started streaming.
Perhaps you are right in the sense that people will get used to the idea that "always-on" video is normal. However, I will not. I am as far as possible from being technophobic, it's just that I like the barrier of not being on display.
I've seen some radiosity-based architectural renderings that have me fooled at about 800x600, I haven't seen anything in motion that has me at that resolution yet, and even the architectural stuff still breaks down at 1024+ (the models are still too clean).
I suppose the only problem for the movie producer is who holds copyright on a persons face?
Imagine George Lucas & co. wants to make 'Indianna Jones 5 - the prequel' with this technology using a likeness of a young Harrison Ford.
The studio owns the likeness of the character 'Indianna Jones', but surely Harrison Ford owns the likeness to his own face (IANAL, but curious if there's precedent for this sort of thing).
I think if a major studio would want to build stars that way , it won't take them long.max a few years. so there won't be a long transition period anyways.
And as for being an open source project, link/source please?
Edit: that code doesn't actually cover the substitution. Here's more info: http://vimeo.com/29279198
However the source for FaceTracker looks like it's "please email us" - so the licensing for that isn't clear. The end result could be (legitimately) proprietary, as long as they supply the MIT license notice.
We could then use your preferred char outfit and face while playing a wii like game, so the game would present a video of you as the main char with any outfit, like playing streetfighter being Mario :D
Really ingenious idea.
For a video that shows how they did this, see http://videos.nymag.com/video/Vulture-Exclusive-The-Winklevi...
Edit: Speaking of replacing with a generated 3D face. Winklewoss replacement could be done 'simply' by double filming both actors in same position and then photoshopping the faces replacing the one with another, frame-by-frame. Face-tracking could be used to align the faces.