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> Is it via spyware running on people's machines? Shady people working at ISPs doing nefarious things for cash?

Might be as simple as https://hola.org/ & https://luminati.io/ - "unblock a website, download our VPN client", meaning you "unblock" by using somebody else's line. And the also sell access at luminati. Most users aren't aware of the implications.

It's a combination of three general things:

a) The type of "services" luckylion mentions where people have opted in to a shady gray market thing reselling proxies through their connection.

b) compromised home routers/gateway devices/internet of shit devices

c) compromised home PCs (mostly windows 7/10 trojans/botnets)

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