CNTPs block anion transport, even at salinities that exceed seawater levels
High salinity levels that occur in some mining processes could produce electricity via pressure-retarded osmosis. Reaching adequate flow rates through membranes has been a barrier to this tech in the past .
As a slightly off-topic question: Does anyone know of any industrial processes where high volumes of fluids with high salinity concentrations occur? I am doing some research on where this technology could be applied.
I often hear about desalination as an energy problem, since the plants use so much to run. I'd be interested to know if this technology would lower the energy requirements of desalination. Anyone read the paper?
Can you expand on what you mean by this please? The ideal Carnot cycle describes the fundamental thermodynamic maximum for extracting work from heat.
I thought that applied across all state changes (i.e. not just in equilibrium situations)?
PS: You can also extract energy by mixing salt and fresh water, so the minimum energy to separate them must be greater than that.
Usually that means increasing price, but the what the commenter above was saying is that often we're making it artificially cheaper. Often by either subsidizing things w/ our taxes (hiding the cost), or by not adequately funding the collection, which will eventually cause failure or exhaustion of the supply.