This is a cute story, but it lacks all sources, and it contradicts Wikipedia  :
> Commonly repeated lore has it that August has 31 days because Augustus wanted his month to match the length of Julius Caesar's July, but this is an invention of the 13th century scholar Johannes de Sacrobosco. Sextilis in fact had 31 days before it was renamed, and it was not chosen for its length (see Julian calendar). According to a senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, Sextilis was renamed to honor Augustus because several of the most significant events in his rise to power, culminating in the fall of Alexandria, fell in that month.
The fact that February has the fewest days makes sense considering it was the last month of the Julian year (March was the first, hence July and August were called quintilis and sextilis, for fifth and sixth, respectively). It doesn't quite explain why the 31-day months are distributed unevenly over the year, but if you are going to take days off, it makes sense to take them off the last month of the year.
No, but information on Wikipedia tends to be accurate and based on reliable sources -- when a person contradicts Wikipedia and fails to provide any sources of their own, they are usually wrong. Not necessarily, of course, but often enough to say the burden of proof lies with the person making the unsubstantiated claim.
The 1911 Britannica is not the source provided. The source is a hypothetical entry in an encyclopedia that most people don't have. That is not as valuable a source as Wikipedia because I cannot easily verify that the 1911 Britannica corroborates the facts in this email.
While breadth-first search and Dijkstra's have a lot in common, Dijkstra's is a priority first search which is inherently sequential, whereas there is some parallelism to be had in BFS since you can check the neighbors of your frontier concurrently given a data structure with which it is efficient to do so.
Binary size! (in my base separated .dbg files were HUGE, compared to the .so files). I don't think it has any impact on performances however (especially as the debug information is put in a separate ELF section, either in a separate file, or mapped but "cold" [ie. not live in memory as the runtime does not touch it])