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> Development on Swift began in 2010 by Chris Lattner, with the eventual collaboration of many other programmers at Apple. Swift took language ideas "from Objective-C, Rust, Haskell, Ruby, Python, C#, CLU, and far too many others to list".


> In July 2011 JetBrains unveiled Project Kotlin, a new language for the JVM, which had been under development for a year ... Influenced by Java, Scala, Groovy, C#, Gosu

So, Kotlin development started before Swift. yeah?!

Maybe. Or maybe not. The data I presented is insufficient.

Kotlin initial commit 8 Nov 2010 - https://github.com/JetBrains/kotlin/commit/369b1974782b821e4... . Note that this does not mean it's the first work done on the project, only the first commit.

http://www.nondot.org/sabre/ says "I started work on the Swift Programming Language (wikipedia) in July of 2010. I implemented much of the basic language structure, with only a few people knowing of its existence. A few other (amazing) people started contributing in earnest late in 2011, and it became a major focus for the Apple Developer Tools group in July 2013."

In any case, it's clear that neither was influenced by the other, at least during initial development.

Yes, it is unreasonable. Quoting from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walking :

> Specific studies have found pedestrian walking speeds ranging from 4.51 kilometres per hour (2.80 mph) to 4.75 kilometres per hour (2.95 mph) for older individuals and from 5.32 kilometres per hour (3.31 mph) to 5.43 kilometres per hour (3.37 mph) for younger individuals; a brisk walking speed can be around 6.5 kilometres per hour (4.0 mph). Champion racewalkers can average more than 14 kilometres per hour (8.7 mph) over a distance of 20 kilometres (12 mi). ...

> Power walking or speed walking is the act of walking with a speed at the upper end of the natural range for walking gait, typically 7 to 9 km/h (4.5 to 5.5 mph).

Quoting from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preferred_walking_speed :

> Many people tend to walk at about 1.4 m/s (5.0 km/h; 3.1 mph). Although many people are capable of walking at speeds upwards of 2.5 m/s (9.0 km/h; 5.6 mph), especially for short distances, they typically choose not to. Individuals find slower or faster speeds uncomfortable.

These all indicate that walking 6 miles in an hour is exceptional.

FWIW, a 10 minute mile is faster than the 11:47 per mile average pace from the 5K run data set at http://www.pace-calculator.com/5k-pace-comparison.php . The average pace for males 25 - 29 is 10 minutes / mile.

> The living situations of the characters on “Big Bang Theory” and “Friends” would have seemed peculiar to mid-20th century audiences.

Three's Company (1977-1984) centered around three non-related, non-college students in the same household. The two female characters shared the same room.

The Odd Couple (1970–1975) had two non-related men in the same apartment. It was based on the 1965 play.

I don't know shows of the 1950s to know if any of them had roommates, vs. a generation later.

> Fifty years ago a person would typically go straight from living with his or her family to living with a spouse

My knowledge of mid-20th century series isn't that good, but I think this reflects a different cultural shift. That is, boarding houses used to be a common thing, not roommates. See https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=roommate%2Cboa... for an ngram comparison.

Sherlock Holmes and Watson shared an apartment. ("In 1881, Watson is introduced by his friend Stamford to Sherlock Holmes, who is looking for someone to share rent at a flat in 221B Baker Street. Concluding that they are compatible, they subsequently move into the flat." - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dr._Watson )

The lead characters of Amos 'n' Andy, "which was popular from the 1920s through the 1950s", "lived in a State Street rooming house" in Chicago when it started - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amos_'n'_Andy .

My suspicion is that "roommate" would have been a peculiar term but the underlying social reason would be well understood. Perhaps like how "condo" would have been a peculiar term to our 1950s viewer, where there is little social difference between condo and apartment living even though there is an important legal difference.

I suspect it's the 1950s which is the odd decade, with its new zoning laws restricting boarding houses, combined with the post-war economic boom. A 1930s viewer - or I should say "listener" - may find it less peculiar.

I pulled out my old Minix (1987) book, which I keep for nostalgia. Tanenbaum on p. 202 writes:

> The simplest algorithm is first fit... A minor variation of first fit is next fit. ... Simulations by Bays (1977) show that next first gives slightly worse performance than first fit. ... Another well-known algorithm is best fit. ... Best fit is slower than first fit.... Somewhat surprisingly, it also results in more wasted memory than first fit or next fit because it tends to fill up memory with tiny, useless holes. First fit generates larger holes on the average. ... one could think about worst fit... Simulation has shown that worst first is not a very good idea. ...

> quick fit ... has the same disadvantage as all schemes that sort by hole size, namely, when a process terminates or is swapped out, finding its neighbors to see if a merge is possible is expensive. If merging is not done, memory will quickly fragment into a large number of small, useless holes.

According to the registry of people living in Sweden, there is a "Phuong Lam Bich" living in the country. Is that not a Vietnamese name, or do you think it's another mixup?

There's also a "Tiffany Luong Thi Bich."

There's even a 'Gun Berlin' and quite a few 'Gun Persson's in Sweden. As well as 'Rune Fart', and a 'Shit' who lives in Angered, though that is not a traditional Swedish name.

If the city is serious about it, look towards Santa Fe, NM, at http://savewatersantafe.com/rebates/ :

> The City of Santa Fe Water Division offers a variety of rebates to encourage customers to conserve water by replacing high use fixtures and appliances with efficient technologies.

> Indoor Rebates Include: () High-efficiency clothes washer rebates, () High-efficiency toilet (HET) rebates for residential or commercial, (*) Water free urinal rebates

Here's the form for the $500 rebate to install water free urinals - http://savewatersantafe.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/urina... .

As a result of 15-20 years of effort, Santa Fe water consumption is down to about 50 gal/person/day.

The Copper Inuit in northern Canada ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper_Inuit ) mined and worked their own copper.

> [They] exchanged goods, particularly copper and driftwood, with the Inuvialuit, the Caribou Inuit, and the Netsilik. There were occasional contacts with Athapaskan Indians to their south - http://what-when-how.com/native-americans/inuit-copper-nativ...

In addition to meteoric iron, the Inuit of Greenland also used telluric iron - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telluric_iron .

Here's the episode:



"- The Arctic Highlanders got their cutlery from metal that came from three meteorites. A man called Ross (after whom Ross Sea is named and who was the first man ever to get up close to the North Pole) observed that a tribe of 200 Inuits in 1818, whom he was the first to encounter, made their cutlery from bone and from the metal taken from three meteorites that they named "The Woman", "The Dog" and "The Tent", after what they thought they looked like. The tribe thought that they were the only people on the planet before Ross met them. 70 years later, Admiral Peary, who claimed to be the first man to reach the North Pole (although the claim is now largely discredited) stole the meteorites and sold them to a museum for $40,000. He also took six Inuit children with him, four of whom died of tuberculosis immediately. One of them survived and was brought up by an American couple. He then discovered that his father's bones where a public exhibit in the Natural History Museum in New York. He complained but Peary refused to do anything about it. However, he did give him enough money to return home. The bones were not returned till 1993."

So for all the examples of Inuit populations that did know there were others, here's one that apparently didn't.

I can't watch the video because 'This video contains content from Fremantle International, who has blocked it in your country on copyright grounds.'

The phrase 'Arctic Highlanders' helped identify them as the Inughuit. http://www.everyculture.com/North-America/Inughuit-Orientati... clarifies it futher:

> Over the decades, the Inughuit have been renamed a number of times by White visitors. "Polar Eskimo," the most common name, was given by Knud Rasmussen in 1903. The Inughuit call themselves "the great and real human beings," and until White contact in 1818, they believed that they were the only humans in the world. "Thule Inuit" is a misnomer, as it refers to the prehistoric culture antecedent to all current Inuit groups.

Do note that this is a small number of the most northern Inuit of Greenland. With your clarification, I think your original 'Inuit communities in Canada' is better stated as 'a few Inuit communities in Greenland'.

And again, most but not all of the Greenland iron came from the meteorites. Quoting the abstract from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/10445803929... :

> Seventy-four iron objects were randomly selected from the archaeological items found in Greenland and have been stored in Copenhagen since about 1850. The objects consist of knives, ulos (knife used by Eskimo women for skinning), and harpoon blades, but also several nonworked fragments and some “hammerstones” were included. The objects were subjected to microscopical examination and x-ray microanalysis to determine their nature and mode of fabrication. The objects may be sorted into three groups. The majority of tools found north of Melville Bay were produced from small fragments of the Cape York iron meteorite shower that fell near Savigsivik over 2000 years ago. Half of the objects found in the Disko Bay area may be traced to occurrences of iron-bearing basalt, while the other half were produced from wrought iron. Some of these wrought-iron tools originated at Norse settlements and were apparently carried as far north as 77° by Norse ships as early as the 12th Century. Other wrought-iron tools were introduced by whalers, mainly of Dutch, Spanish and British origin, after about a.d. 1575. Some tools may derive from iron nails and hoops from wrecked ships. No signs of indigenous iron production have been detected.

That's a question posed in Diamond's "Collapse", regarding Easter Island.

Of course, the same applies to the last of many things - what were they thinking of when they killed off the passenger pigeons, or the aurochs?

They were thinking solely of their immediate individual gain, of course. They had bills to pay, and mouths to feed, and no time to watch the tragedy of the commons unfold.

Even if it is the last one, if taking it is the only way to individually profit, then it will be taken.

The only way to preserve an endangered common resource is to make the conservation pay more on an individual basis than immediate harvest. Usually, this is accomplished by imposing stiff penalties such that harvest is a net loss, but that is very dependent on being able to reliably catch poachers. Bribing people to not destroy their own commons also works, but is much more expensive, which is why when this happens at all, the bribes are usually paid out from money that was originally taken from the people being bribed.


As for the article, my household runs about 180 gallons per person-day, without any extreme conservation measures. We flush every time, plus gratuitous flushes to dispose of dead bugs or simply to refresh the hands-free toilet cleaner product, and take long showers. Our water bill stopped having intermittent spikes and unexplained fluctuations when we put plumbing locks on our outdoor-accessible faucets. Some neighborhood dipshit had been stealing our water.

That, by itself, was no big deal. A cubic foot or two here or there is small change. But they also left the water running while no one who cared was around to turn it off.

If you are forgoing flushes, skipping showers, and such, there is no way you're using more than 170 gallons per person-day without "help".

You could probably make some decent money buying up some faucet locks and then peddling them door-to-door in those water districts.

Economics and local optimization http://throbgoblins.blogspot.fi/2006/12/blog-post_2817.html

Its different though - since water is very basic. A lot like food.

Certainly they are different, but you brought up how it reminded you of the person who asked Diamond about cutting down the last tree on Easter Island.

That's neither water nor food either.

When and how did it become that way? If it happened in the late 1800s, then that's still many generations ago. If it happened before 1857, as an imported loan word through other Polynesian speakers, then it even fits in with the context.

What did they call the place before the English came? The Wikipedia entry says "The islands were historically known by the inhabitants as “jolet jen Anij” (Gifts from God)", though the citation is to http://www.pacificrisa.org/places/republic-of-the-marshall-i... which says "The Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) is historically referred to in folklore as “jolet jen Anij” (gifts from God)." But names from folklore can be different than actual names (eg, "The Promised Land"/"Land of Israel"), and what little evidence I found suggests that is the case here.

For what it's worth, the embassy of the Marshall Islands in DC at http://www.rmiembassyus.org/History.htm says:

> 500 BC - 2000 BC (approx.) - The first Micronesian navigators arrive in the Marshalls, calling the atolls Aelon Kein Ad (Our Islands).

though without a written language it's surely hard to know the words used 2500 years ago.

And in 'The Sea - The Marshallese World' by Dirk H.R. Spennemann at http://marshall.csu.edu.au/Marshalls/html/culture/SeaNavigat... :

> The Marshallese had no perception of the atolls of the Marshall Islands as a geographical entity differentiated from other entities. They called them Aelon Kein Ad, "our atolls" and called themselves accordingly: Armij Aelon Kein, "people of these islands". [3]

Where [3] is "Senfft 1903", which appears to be 'Die Marshall-Insulaner' by Arno Senfft.

I'm willing to say that 115 years counts as "for generations".

I'm also curious how they picked up that pidgin use of English given they were a German Protectorate at this time, and before that were assigned Spanish sovereignty? Can you explain this process?


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