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That's an important way of looking at it, and is correct as far as traditional UNIX operations like fopen go. But it isn't the whole story because many other operations require treating paths as text. For example, converting them to URIs, putting them in ZIP files, or looking up a file on a filesystem which internally stores filenames in UCS-2.

Threading both of these needles at once basically requires viewing paths as potentially-invalid encoded text.


Yeah, "subscribe, watch, cancel" is effectively "rent" in a world without video rentals.

Clever! Should probably have aria-hidden though.

My summary:

The mesh for rendering and the mesh for collision detection are separate, so the first cause of "invisible walls" is just that a wall exists in the collision mesh but not in the render mesh.

The other causes are mostly all because of tiny gaps in the level geometry. The game doesn't want to let you go somewhere where there is no floor below you, or there is a ceiling below you with no floor between you and the ceiling. (A floor is just a collision tri with normal pointing up, a ceiling is one with normal pointing down.) If you try to move into one of these places, you hit an "invisible wall". Tiny gaps in the level geometry (eg. tiny misalignments of vertices) can create these places with no floor below them.

The fact that collision detection is done with integer math, combined with certain geometric situations, make the game particularly prone to small gaps around the edges of platforms. The bulk of the video classifies these geometric situations in detail.

The game does not do continuous/swept collision detection, but moves Mario in discrete steps. You only hit the "invisible wall" if you are unlucky enough to land exactly on the gap at the end of a step, which is why you only seem to hit them sometimes. This is the same reason you can pass through regular walls when you move fast enough.

An exacerbating factor is a bug in the "check for floor under Mario" routine that the video calls "floor overshadowing" (the decomp calls it "surface cucking"). The game searches for the floor under you from highest to lowest, returning the first one below you... except there's no actual way to order tris in 3D space from "highest to lowest" (it uses the height of the first vertex in the tri). So a tri earlier in the list can "cuck" the correct tri later in the list, which can result in a floor between Mario and a ceiling not being found even when it exists.


When we can talk about "a diverse candidate", the word has obviously become untethered from any ordinary meaning.

Read "non-white", "non-straight", and/or "non-male" in place of "diversity" and you will see that it works 100% of the time.

I think you’re right. But that isn’t actually what diverse means. The opposite - lefty non-white, non-straight and mostly non-male people are a specific political group.

I think it’s quite on the nose for organisations to cater to that community explicitly. And the wider population is far more diverse than that.


Prior to uniformed police, law enforcement was a largely private matter, and private "thief-takers" were enlisted to apprehend criminals. My understanding is modern state-run police forces developed in response to public anger over misconduct and corruption in the thief-takers, such as the Macdaniel affair.

Particularly they were infamous for playing "both sides" by taking money from a victim to arrest a thief, then taking money from the thief not to arrest them.


I've bought lots of modified second-hand books (highlights, cross-outs, corrections). Are you saying that's illegal?

its illegal when its considered a derivative work (substantially altering or adding content)

those little modifications made from a consumer prob dont count. the first sale doctrine covers minor wear and tear type stuff


Your telling me it's illegal to pay someone to illustrate my copy of a book? It's illegal to commission a translation of a book for personal use? Is it illegal to pay someone to read a book to me?

yeah all three are copyright infringement

you cant make audio books, illustrations, or translations of a book without the authors permission

note that text to speech isnt considered derivative work. its considered a tool rather than creating content. so its legal for a kindle to read it to you


I think you're confused, or at least talking past GP. It's not copyright infringement to create a derivative work - e.g. by adding illustrations to a book. What's infringement is if you copy and distribute the derivative work without a license to the original. GP was asking about the former, not the latter.

There's a case where a Japanese venue commissioned an art piece, wrapped it, artists sued the venue, and the court ordered the art be restored to the original state on the ground of copyright. I think it was a couple feet tall cat statue or something.

It's somewhat of a case by case basis matter and it's rarely brought to the court, but just because you own a piece doesn't always make it all to your discretion to modify it.


us code 106 gives the copyright holder exclusive rights of derivative works

so yes even at home, making art for a book you dont have permission for, and isnt seen by anyone but you, is still copyright infringement


Yes, but that doesn't mean it's "illegal" to create a derivative work. It just means that the original author has rights they can exert over what you make.

I dont know everything i read online says its copyright infringement to create derivative works, outside of stuff like parodies, fair use and getting permission.

> outside of stuff like .. fair use

That's the important bit - the things you called illegal a few comments back were obvious examples of (presumptive) fair use.

More generally, whether something is copyright infringement can be vague and subjective - so the bar for going around saying "yes, that is infringement" is not "does it meet a description I read online?". The bar is: "have courts previously ruled that a very similar case was infringement?".


I have no idea if that's true, but you can't seriously expect anyone to actually abide by that, it's absurd.

> its legal for a kindle to read it to you

It seems to me that computers programs have more rights than humans.


Competes with devs selling you their own save edits ("cash shop" purchases)?

You're probably right. It makes me angry and bums me out.

For me, grinding 98% of the time is not enjoyable. Game are definitely better than what they once were, but let me cheat on single player games. I get it game developers, the play time will be shorter I'm fine with that.

And game devs if you don't want to add cheats then add a bunch of accessibility controls because those things are just as good as cheats.

Also just let me temporarily turn off encounters. Sometimes I don't want to fight. I just want to walk around and enjoy the world you made. But no I get an encounter every minute and I'm stuck listening to that same battle song again. Looking at you Yakuza franchise.


Uhh, how does that get you dependency tracking?

Even if you know the probability of an event precisely, you still don't know if it will actually occur. And even if you know it will actually occur, you still don't know when, so insurance still provides diffusion over time.


There is no "diffusion over time" with variable premia and short terms. Insurance companies already know the probability of an event within a risk pool over a term. That's not what this is talking about. They are looking to condition on more and more information so as to slice a risk pool towards a 0-1 risk, which, because they are positive EV, will make their profit more and more certain. They are looking to eliminate the negative tail, the existence of which is the whole point of paying out that positive EV.

In the end, this is going to happen. Insurance companies will be soothsayers and get paid for essentially making advisory predictions, not offloading risk, while society will have to agree to bear the cost of known outcomes over which people generally have no individual agency.


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