Definitely would suggest going beyond the Klout Score and implementing a mix of topics, topical scores, interest and influence into the Klout calculation. The raw Klout Score is a bit broader than necessary for lead qualification and relevance.
This is silly. You've licensed nearly every game you ever bought since the 90s, likely even before that. You've never owned it; you just felt like you did. Server-side storage and 'online-only' gaming just solidifies this in a technological sense, not a legal one.
Instagram's Terms essentially say you have to respect the copyright and license of the photos.
However, their API doesn't provide any mechanism to know what those licenses and copyrights are yet, which makes it pretty difficult to honor it. Still, you're bound by the terms, not their execution. If it's a business you plan to make money off of, you should probably consult legal advice and plan ahead to lose it.
Contacting them is your best option. Find some one to talk to, explain what you'd like to do, and how the terms restrict you, and see if you can't find a way to have an exception, clarification, or some other way around it.
Which is why it behooves you to contact them and get clarification, exception, etc. The same rules don't apply to everyone equally if you can make the right case.
Simply displaying their content is not likely to get a pass, but having a way to brand it well and drive new content creation often will.
Twitter does make money on its API. It's done through channel partnerships. Is it as much as advertising? No. But still significant.
Twitter's API is still sufficiently open. There's plenty of data to be had. The limitations and constraints breeds creativity, and we'll finally see new integrations and ideas that do something new rather than simple enhancements and user-annoyance-fixing-as-a-product.