I'm a native Ohioan and have (had?) lived in California for the past 4 years. Currently I'm abroad in South America, and I have to say I miss tipping. Why? Because when there isn't an incentive for the staff to give good service, I often get terrible service. It can take ages to get served, I'll often request something when food is first brought and don't receive it until I'm already done with my meal, etc. Part of this is certainly related to the laid back attitude of Latin America cultures, but if the service employees were incentivized to give better service they probably wouldn't stand around talking to each other for 15 minutes while my friends and I are waiting on another beer.
Now I do hate that in the States there are now tip jars at all sorts of establishments, but to me restaurants and bars I much prefer tipping culture.
I live in Japan right now where there is absolutely no tipping (not even "sometimes tipping" like in Europe) and the service is better than I've experienced anywhere else, including the US. And here it's not just limited to restaurants, even in shops you get service with amazing attention to detail (oh your bag looks heavy, here's a piece of foam to pad the handle...)
Indeed. Tipping or no-tipping is really not a black and white issue. Just because they do not receive tips does not mean they don't care. For all you know they could get fired for standing around - like you would be with a regular office job.
Since you are HN I assume you are in IT. How exactly do you get tipped for the work you do? And do you provide terrible support and buggy product if people do not pay you just for fun 20% above your usual billing rate? And what is your incentive for working at all if tipping is so uncommon in the IT industry?
Perhaps if people would tip IT professionals we'd have a lot less "Hello IT, have you tried turning it off and on again," "IT is incredibly incompetent" stereotypes. I would tip my IT people if they did an outstanding enough job to warrant it, but it's hard to find anyone that doesn't live up past the stereotype - a self-reenforcing loop of bad wages begets bad service begets bad wages.
No it wouldn't because your employer would counter the tipping culture by cutting your wages creating an equilibrium, only now you have to rely on other people providing the bulk of your salary instead of your employer.
>Tipping is expected no matter what in the US. There is no incentive to do better here either.
It is expected, yes, but as a European with vast experience in customer service on both sides of the pond, even with expected tips the level of service in US restaurants/bars/etc. is far, far higher than what I'm accustomed to in Europe.
Now it can sometimes be overbearing but overall the experience is generally more welcoming, more friendly and more personal. When I'm eating in an up-scale place in Europe, the staff are generally very professional and quite quiet. Lower down the scale the staff are just "meh".
In the US, even if you go into a chain restaurant at rush hour I've found the staff to be totally engaging, eager to have a chat, find out what you like, recommend you things and then check up on you to see if everything is alright.
That's not to say that it's always great service in US and always mediocre in Europe, but there's definitely an overall different feel to the level of service offered regardless of a tip being expected.
I got the opposite after a trip to the States. I found it really false the way every waiter tries too hard to be your friend.
Arrived back in Barcelona (where small change is usually considered a tip). Had a grumpy waiter who didn't even write down our order for tapas, forgot one of them. But his personality was real. I didn't feel obliged to tip him.
I would imagine most/all young (under 35 - I'm 30, personally, and had same experience as GP), self-employed people making a decent amount of money (such that they don't get subsidies) have had this experience. The plans never match up fully, but I had a high deductible "catastrophic" plan pre-ACA and for the equivalent coverage I a.) had to apply for an exemption to even get the "catastrophic" plan through ACA and b.) it still cost significantly more for a higher deductible.
Now as you note I do get certain benefits with this plan I didn't get with my other one- namely a couple doctors visits a year when my other one was only one every 2- but I had a catastrophic plan for a reason and my premium more than doubled under the ACA. Beneficial to me (and likely the GP) is being able to pay only for coverage we actually want- not additional "benefits" that we don't plan on using and would rather pay out of pocket for.
My plan had no lifetime limits, generally awesome coverage, HDHP, and was ended. I don't believe it's because it was non-compliant, but because it was no longer economic to underwrite with 1) guaranteed issue 2) substantial minimum/preventive benefits paid per year (so, essentially a guarantee of $300-400 in reimbursements on a $1200 premium per year, with some odds of $100k or $1mm or whatever payouts in rare cases too.)
Hangovers tend to occur when you've had MDMA mixed with one of the ever-more-frequent mixers such as methamphetamine, cocaine or even MDA, which actually targets dopamine receptors far more prominently than the serotonin and knock you out for days. Pressed pills are usually the culprit, and I would avoid them unless you know exactly where they're coming from.
From a wide array of experience, pure MDMA (in recommended doses, meaning 200mg or less) produces less of a hangover than two beers, with a very real "afterglow" which lasts for days after. Excellent focus and concentration included.
"The drug's letdown can include feelings of confusion, irritability, anxiety, paranoia and depression, and people may experience memory loss or sleep problems, jaundice or liver damage."
"Dr. John Halpern, a Harvard Medical School assistant professor who led the research, said pure MDMA can change core body temperature, heart rate and blood pressure in the short-term, and decrease immune resistance for a few days."
It definitely varies by person. I know people who say they consistently get an afterglow and feel even better the next day, whereas others consistently feel the serotonin deficiency and can feel a bit depressed. The jaw clenching seems to be more universal.
There are also supplements that help prevent the negative side effects plus protect against some of the toxicity.. magnesium + gum for the jaw clenching, Vitamin C  + ALA  + Vitamin E  + others for antioxidants and preventing neurotoxicity and hepatoxicity.
That is the cumulative amounts that he sold I believe, which means that through 1,400 reviews the actual amount per sale is quite small (as they note, individual amounts per sale not bulk sales).
If you're talking about the course of a year or two of sales, sales in the 10s and even 100s of thousands isn't all that much if you consider the profit margin. What kind of volume do you think an eBay or Amazon seller does in a year to make $100k?
The complaint notes that these amounts don’t count sales
going back more than five months prior to the investigation
The volume estimated is only for a 5 month period, not the defendants' entire careers. Drug dealers have much higher margins than eBay sellers, according to one source earning a 200% markup (66% profit margin) splitting up kilos of cocaine 
If you want to do blind tests on beer snobbery, why would you choose a bunch of shitty American Lagers? If you had put in higher quality beer along side those lagers, I'm sure any seasoned craft beer drinker would know the difference. If you put a line up of different beers of a similar style, most "beer snobs" would be able to distinguish them, which ones they prefer, and most likely would be able to pick out their favorite if it was among the lineup.
I'm not sure how blind testing a bunch of cheap beer helps with your hypothesis that "Drink snobbery, whether relating to coffee, beer... has always seemed like confirmation bias in action."
I failed to make it clear, but the thing under test wasn't that Guinness is better than Bud Lite, but the assertion that some cheep beers are better than others -- a snobbery which pops up every time I order a pitcher in a bar. That one was really more of a fun testing anecdote of narrow scope.
The wine test on the other hand, I don't think you could take issue with, as its snobbery is second only to -- I'm not even sure, whiskey drinkers? The test was set up exactly as you'd want the beer one to be
>If you put a line up of different beers of a similar style, most "beer snobs" would be able to distinguish them
Just sub in "wine" for "beer." And the snobs failed.
There are 3 main active ingredients in marijuana: THC, CBD, and CBN. The places I go get their strains and edibles/topicals/whatever lab tested so you know the %s of each. In general, higher CBD+CBN levels are better for pain relief and insomnia and will cause more grogginess/drowsiness than strains higher in THC which are more for appetite stimulation, euphoria, anxiety relief, etc.
At least in SF the legitimate dispensaries do a good job of informing you about these things and finding the strains that will accomplish what you want.
If I am trying to get relief for pain and insomnia, why would I begin with the assumption that I am looking for a strain of THC at all? Why not get medical advice on how to treat the pain/insomnia/underlying conditions?
You are incorrect about the effects of CBD, in fact modern research has shown it's effect to be more stimulating and has been compared to ritalin by those with experience.
For more modern up to date science backed information on CBD see projectcbd.org
CBN is not a primary cannabinoid, it's a breakdown product of THC and simply indicates how old or stale the cannabis is. It's primary effect is grogginess and general unpleasantness so you want to avoid it as much as possible.
Any dispensary that says CBD is good for insomnia is simply repeating long disproven but widely spread information.
There are definitely bugs- I played the 2nd link and on several moves the AI moved in the wrong region. I played in the SW block in the E square and then the AI played in the same SW block as me, then did the same thing on the next turn playing in the wrong region.