For what it's worth, this statistic is a little outdated, a little wrong, and not necessarily the one you care about.
A little outdated: It was done in 2013, and in the past couple years the touch panels on most flagship Android devices have gotten significantly better. Even the linked article was comparing Apple's latest device to older flagship models. The Nexus 5, released a week after Touchmarks published their numbers, consistently has about 70ms of latency, for example. The M8 reportedly gets around 50ms of latency, which is pretty astounding.
A little wrong: There were multiple issues with the Touchmarks benchmark. They reportedly "discovered an optimization in our iOS test app that was not present in our Android or Windows Phone test apps", they had known race conditions that could introduce additional delay on Android that were never fixed, etc.
Not necessarily the one you care about: That statistic measure physical touch down to visible response, but you only actually care about the time until the application receives the event because that's the point you actually can kick off the network activity. Considering the display latency side of it is ~48ms, that's a fairly significant difference.
I'll edit the article when I get a chance.
For what it's worth, I agree with pretty much the rest of your post. Too often I see people start to complain about "pre-mature optimization" but when you're trying to do something like hit a smooth 60fps animation then a lot of these things really matter. Profiling is great when you have hotspots, but too often these things are plagued by a death of a thousand cuts.