First, I said "overdoses", not "overdose deaths". There is a difference.
The source you cited doesn't make it clear whether the known opioid deaths did or did not involve acetaminophen. Since hydrocodone, oxycodone, codeine, dihydrocodeine, and tramadol are all combined with acetaminophen, I'd guess the intersection of the two sets is significant.
The FDA recognized this problem and cut the APAP dose in combination analgesics to a maximum of 325mg (compared with the recommended 500mg dose of APAP alone) in 2009. They did not restrict the opioid dosages because they weren't responsible for the toxicity.
...is tautological and could be said about almost anything.
The fact that the toxic dose is close to the therapeutic dose means that it is not safe.
"Liver toxicity from acetaminophen poisoning is by far the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States, researchers reported."
But that's because paracetamol is deliberately used as a self-poisoning method. Very few of those acute overdoses are accidental. Although they do happen accidental overdose is usually old people storing meds in the wrong place and children getting access.
Very few people accidentally overdose on paracetamol by doubling up on paracetamol containing meds - and the solution is better packaging and warnings.
There are some things that help reduce overdosing. Restricting the sale of paracetamol to blister packs only, and not bottles, does help.
(Neither you nor Alex3917 have suggested a safer off the shelf alternative)
"Some people deliberately take toxic doses in suicide attempts, but others may accumulate high levels of acetaminophen unintentionally when they take, for example, Tylenol for a headache and a second acetaminophen-containing product for cold symptoms."
Also people overdose when they're hung over.
>(Neither you nor Alex3917 have suggested a safer off the shelf alternative)
And I don't intend to. Ask a doctor. I have no idea why you use it, or if any suggestion of mine would cover that usage. I never find any reason to use anything stronger than aspirin, and Advil was suggested earlier in the thread.
- fewer people resort to opioids for recreational purposes, due to higher availability of marijuana
- alcohol + opioids is a deadly combination. People who are high on marijuana tend to drink less, because alcohol doesn't go well with marijuana either. Marijuana, however, can be combined with many drugs and tends to enhance the experience, requiring less of the drug.
- Marijuana makes people more cautious and health-conscious due to it's capacity to induce temporary paranoia and anxiety at larger doses.
A quick google search for 'marijuana combined with heroin' led me to a forum where people are reporting full-blown panic attacks when combining the two, with users generally reporting that the two drugs tend to enhance one another. Such panic attacks are powerful experiences and can be life-changing in a positive way.
Several countries have eased on marijuana prohibition due to the opiod addiction problem getting out of control (Switzerland, Portugal, Spain and probably other countries) and as a consequence saw decreases in overdoses and HIV infections so this study just corraborates what has been observed in other places around the world.
The Legalization of Recreational Marijuana: How Likely is the Worst-Case Scenario?, with Daniel Rees. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 33 (2014) 221-232.
Williams, Jenny, Rosalie Pacula, Frank Chaloupka, and Henry Wechsler. 2004. “Alcohol and Marijuana Use among College Students: Economic Complements or Substitutes?” Health Economics 13: 825-843.
It seems that the research based on natural experiments is intrinsically better than the price-related studies, and so far, that indicates that marijuana legalization reduces alcohol consumption.
Anderson's research also indicates that medical marijuna legalization resulted in a significant decrease in traffic fatalities, which is a huge win.
PDFs may differ from published versions.
Considering they're both CNS depressants this makes sense
As the article suggests, correlation does not equal causation. Looking at this map: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Map-of-US-state-cannabis-...
one can imagine numerous other reasons that might lead to differential rates of painkiller (ab)use between states. Socioeconomic status is fairly clear to me (states with higher status are more likely to have medical marijuana), other correlations are a bit more of a can of worms.
Nobody that I have mentioned this too has ever said they experienced the same so I've usually just written it off as some sort of strange psychosomatic thing, but the article's passing mention that "marijuana doesn’t replace the pain relief of opiates. However, it does seem to distract from the pain by making it less bothersome." makes me wonder if something is actually going on here.
A lot has been said in this debate and a sort of misguided idea that has been floating around lately is that the therapeutic effects of cannabis are entirely due to CBD, but this is not the case. Current thinking is that the cannabinoid receptor type 1 -- CB1 -- is responsible for analgesic (anti-pain) and recreational properties, while CB2 is responsible for antiinflammatory effects; these are both targeted by THC, not CBD. CBD binds to a novel binding site GPR55 (iirc) and to 5-ht1a, which is believed to be partially responsible for the prosocial effects of MDMA, but not to cannabinoid receptors. Wrt. cancer, a bad summary is that THC activates some parts of the body's natural cancer defenses via CB2 (all CB2 agonists do so) and CBD might have some strange, mechanism-not-yet-determine antiproliferative activity. However, these effects may be too modest to be practically useful (who knows?); cancers easily become resistant to CB2 agonists.
While I'm blabbering I might as well dispense with the idea propounded by some that cannabis should only be used medically in the form of precisely calibrated extract compositions: this idea, while attractive, is simply too expensive, and unfair to poor people seeking pain relief, somnolescence, etc. However, from what I've seen here today, it might not be bad to try to implement a system where doctors can prescribe a specific terpenoid ratio w.r.t. THC, CBD, and THCV; the last is an antagonist and may give strains a "ceiling" effect, which can be useful if people need to smoke all day for some reason.
Some nonspecific examples of tested strain concentration:
Many strains according to this site of yours certainly seem to contain significantly more than 1.5% CBD. Ditto this study:
... which doesn't include any modern US strains but provides strong support for the idea that there are plants with large amounts of both CBD and THC. I actually may have made a separate mistake...
>Elevated levels of CBDV and/or THCV were much more common in plants of C. indica than in plants of C. sativa. Plants with elevated levels of THCV, sometimes exceeding THC, were detected in all four biotypes of C. indica, but not in all accessions.
So my memory has failed me, or the common-wisdom I absorbed: Cannabis indica contains more of both THC and CBD than Cannabis sativa, but also contains larger amounts (and proportion) of the antagonist homologue THCV. And modern strains are all really hybrids anyway.
Learn something new every day, I suppose. I appreciate the info - I'll keep on the look out.
To me, It doesn't matter if the results are actual pain relief either. If it helps make it so the pain is tolerable so that one can function more normally, it really doesn't matter. Perceived improvement is good for the mind.
In your particular case, might it be that you're hypnotising yourself into remembering and feeling old pain ?
For real pain there are several drugs that rather than just blocking the sensation tone down the importance of pain. Pot, falls into this group and relative to the benifit has few side effects.
I'm all in favour of legalisation, but the medical trend sounds like a big hypocrisy to me. I'm certain some patients benefit somehow from the effects of THC or CDB, but pretty much all cannabis users are recreational.
From my experience, it only tones down the sensation of pain at best, maybe just a placebo. More often I would just get high as a kite to stop caring about pain and/or to be able to sleep easily. Not that that's a bad thing but... in the end I tried another prescription option and get most of the same toning down/drowsiness effect without bad side effects for far cheaper, so that was the end of that.
No doubt many users just want to use it recreationally, but enough people are motivated to study medicinal uses, so that's good. I think there is some potential here for that.
Here's some links: