But the important thing there is that they're measuring their role as a supplement, however, most of them are needed (and present in a healthy diet), while some aren't
Potassium is a needed element of a diet, and as the article mentioned, there seems to be a lot of deficiency, but maybe a better understanding of deficiency/needed dose is needed.
"This image is a “balloon race”. The higher a bubble, the greater the evidence for its effectiveness. But the supplements are only effective for the conditions listed inside the bubble.
You might also see multiple bubbles for certain supps. These is because some supps affect a range of conditions, but the evidence quality varies from condition to condition. For example, there’s strong evidence that Green Tea is good for cholesterol levels. But evidence for its anti-cancer effects is conflicting. In these cases, we give a supp another bubble."
edit: Apologies, I misread your comment. The X-axis can be modified on the interactive version to sort by: alphabetically, popularity or scientific interest. The static version is alphabetical. Beyond that, it's just to help spread things out to be readable.
When one eats un-manufactured food
* for a given nutrient there are many different forms of it
* there are many inter-related nutrients that effect each other (nutrient synergy)
Take a look at how many forms of Vitamin A there are on the Wikipedia entry. The idea that we can pick one and load up on it may not be correct. This is true of many minerals also because they need to be bound with something else (magnesium malate, etc).
The odd thing about nutrient synergy is that it is very well established scientific phenomenon. But it just doesn't fit well with our reductionist approach to science.
No, it's for increasing shelf-life and maintaing the flavor/aspect. Vitamin C is an antioxidant.
First of all, it's added as pure iron. You don't absorb iron in its mineral form, it needs to be in some organic form to be digested. So that already makes it totally pointless.
But let's ignore that for a moment and pretend we could digest mineral iron. Turns out that if your food contains iron and calcium, the calcium will take precedence and effectively block the absorption of iron. And what do we pour on our breakfast cereals? Oh, right. Milk.
It also can work the other way around: vitamin C helps with the absorption of iron.
I have long struggled with social anxiety, and under stressful situations severe panic attacks. I found out via examine.com (fantastic website for getting scientific info on supplements) that inositol (vitamin b8) is potentially more potent than SSRIs in treating anxiety disorders. I bought a tub of the stuff and sure enough there has been a dramatic dose-dependent reduction in symptoms.
Unfortunately, because it's "just a vitamin" there is limited data available, so I have no idea how safe it is or whether it has any long-term effects.
But I don't want to take one of the multivitimins that has 100% of everything in, that just ensures that I have way too much of some things.
That only matters if the body cannot quickly flush or discard the things it doesn't need. It's probably different for each type of supplement. As a supporting example, it would be quite difficult to drink too much water as there's an easy mechanism to deal with it .
 Before anyone leaps on that statement, yes, I'm aware that it is possible to overdose on water. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_intoxication
To even get a multivitamin with only 80-100% of DRV max, you have to look for a "mature" multivitamin, usually labeled as age 50+ - 60+.
I don't have a varied or complete diet, so I take a mature multivitamin - Kirkland (Costco house brand) Mature Multi, well reviewed in Consumer Reports and elsewhere when I looked into vitamins. And really cheap, as low as $10 for a 400 count bottle.
If you're really interested in less than 100%, most ought to be easy to split in half with a pill splitter.
The data is inconclusive
As a recreational and occasionally-competitive athlete in powerlifting, my vitamin requirements are likely abnormal, especially during intensive training
Medical studies usually focus on mortality, whereas I'm also interested in athletic potential and quality of life
I take a multivitamin and sometimes macro-dose on C and E.
Look - anyone of us can just spout our opinion. What separates HN is that people take the time to explain their reasons and often credentials. If you said, "Here's why and BTW I've worked in this industry as an XYZ for 25 years" - your opinion might matter. But as stated you've just stated your own personal opinion as though it is fact. Downvoted for that reason.
You must be thinking of HN from a few years back, it's basically just a discussion site these days AFAICT.
My opinion wasn't on the supplements by the way, it's on the industry. The industry which in Europe has to include disclaimers in all its advertising to the effect of "this stuff might be useful for the elderly and those on restricted diets" because there's no evidence for anything. The industry which heavily resists any effort to regulate it various medical claims in the same way actual medicines are regulated. It's shady as hell.
I assumed this was common knowledge.
Heh, have you seen the average US citizen's diet? I think a significant percentage of diets among USA inhabitants can be called "horrific" without being an exaggeration.
We have stuff like this happening... http://www.heartattackgrill.com/heart-attack-grill.html
"Over 350lbs? Eat for Free!!!" ---Seriously, that's a policy of this business.
In terms of variety burgers really aren’t that bad. It would be much more concerned about getting too much of something, not too little.
You don't need to taken them every day, one multi vitamin ever other day or even one day a week can actually help with a lot of issues over the long term. Much like exercise consistency is more important than a few years of excess.
PS: I have actually been referred to a nutritionist due to medical issues.
So I'll repeat - unless you have a known deficiency or a restricted diet, they're a waste of time and money, and the industry is snake-oil.
Supplementation and testing must always be taken in context. The average sedentary human does not have the same caloric needs as the aspiring professional athlete, nor do they have similar supplementation needs either.
I don't remember the exact numbers, but if the sun is out there, around 10min (or maybe up to 30min) under the sun with light clothing will give you the needed Vitamin D dosage.
Now, in high latitude winter, the time needed is in the order of hours. With heavier clothing this becomes much harder.