Are you using Docker for containers?
As a language neophyte I found this far more persuasive than arguments over emergent behaviour, because it talks about actual practice, as opposed to talking in abstractions (which rarely leads to fruitful discussion). The attraction of Go to me is in its commitment to simplicity, at the expense of some power or terseness it becomes easy to read, easy to extend, and hard to use to create monstrous complexity.
It feels like an improved C rather than building on the traditions of C++ say.
The package system, import system, composition and no inheritance, and extensive use of interfaces all encourage simplicity above all.
Composition - it's harder to create huge taxonomies which all depend on a common root.
Packaging - encourages very simple small components rather than huge frameworks which are hard or even impossible to understand all at once or separate into components. Godep looks interesting here, thanks for the link.
Interfaces - similar to many other languages, but without the boilerplate of declarations (this sort of decision is where controversies start - what some see as boilerplate others see as important contracts, same goes for header files).
It is of course missing a few things which would be nice, but nothing should stop people trying it out today - if you value simplicity above all, Golang will probably appeal.
I do feel that Go is an improved C (perhaps Java-lite). If you want a better C++, you might want to check out Rust.
Obviously, you can't compare small Go projects to huge Java monstrosities that were written in the old Java style (lots of XML configuration etc.), but modern Java and Go are hardly distinguishable (in approach; not syntax). Maybe I'm particularly prone to this view because I've implemented true fibers (goroutines) and channels for the JVM, so I sometimes transliterate Go code to Java (the resulting code is always of similar length, perhaps with a slight advantage to Java, now with Java 8's streams and such).
Go was designed by people at Google for large projects. Saying it's only good for small ones is selling it short.
How does performance compare?
With regards to IO, fiber-blocking IO currently uses the JVM's asynchronous NIO (which uses epoll/kqueue) under the covers, unchanged. But Java's async NIO is intended to be thread-safe, so there is lots of unnecessary synchronization going on there. The result is about 7% slower than Go. Again, the more computation work you do, the more the performance swings in favor of Java. We can do much better with IO by plugging our own NIO provider (Java's dynamic linking everywhere is awesome), but because the performance is really good as it is, it's not a top priority for us at the moment.
EDIT: the reason I would use Java over Go for all the "serious stuff" isn't primarily performance, though. It's the incredible monitoring and profiling capabilities, hot code swapping and other stuff that's possible with full dynamic linking.
It's not much different, in that it still requires rewriting the internal imports of the libraries, but it doesn't require copying of files or working with git submodules, and provides the same stability.
I think godep certainly looks promising and I have it in my TODO to try it out, but working with forks for the relatively small codebase we have is enough for now.
I totally share the author's feelings that fetching master to do deployments is pretty rough for repeatability. Vendoring fixes the core repeatability problem, but leaves a lot of other questions. What if I want to use this library in several projects without essentially forking it for each one? What if I want to reuse two of my libraries in other project, and they both vendored the same things? And so on.
I use git submodules for golang source dependencies with reasonable success. I also asked myself "What if I need this to be backwards compatible with `go get` semantics?" and found it's hackable: create a dir in your project which you'll add to your $GOPATH, add git submodules there with fully-qualified dir names matching their public urls (i.e. `myproject/.gopath/github.com/whoever/whatever/`), and to tie it off make a symlink from your own project's fully-qualified dir name back up to your repo root.
With that symlink, your own project has the same package names regardless of whether the code is being referenced internally to that project, via the public go-get'able urls, or via being submoduled in another project. Nobody's left out.
Example here https://github.com/polydawn/pogo/commit/c6fac440c99c00c2db65... (though I've since switched to putting the symlinks in a .gopath dir, as that seems more popular).
Submodules can introduce complexity to a project if inserted into the middle of a project where abstraction layers aren't finished yet (all the complaints about merging being totally undefined are true). But when a relatively stable library API is either already existing or a firm intention, submodules stay pretty well out of the way in normal development and can actually cross over to helpful by drawing attention to when you should think twice about API shifts. (Also, it might be worth mentioning git's CLI for submodules has gotten radically better in the last few releases.)
It's certainly not the only way to do things, and if you're happy with other solutions like vendoring, by all means carry on (godep is great too, as the article mentions; it doesn't vendor, and still gets you a hash for precision and integrity of your deps)... I just thought it was interesting that it's possible without any special tools.
It does appear grails manage to expose many of the good parts of Ivy/Maven while keeping build-files reasonably sane -- and crucially it appears to offer a pretty solid story in terms of "predictable future deployment" (can I restore a service in two years and deploy it on a contemporary system?).
Are there any good fixes for this at all? What other ways of tackling the dev env are there for Go?
My $GOPATH is in a standard place: $HOME/.local/share/go (aka $XDG_DATA_HOME/go) and all my projects (whatever language it is) live in $HOME/dev.
I use github for all my projects, so the public path for my go projects would be $GOPATH/src/github.com/rakoo/petproject. So all I have to do is
$ cd $GOPATH/src/github.com/rakoo
$ ln -s ~/dev/petproject petproject
You do have to do this once for each project you start, but that should scale quite well.
TL;DR: Your projects don't need to be in $GOPATH; they only need to be accessible from $GOPATH
It's quite possible that I will be better off just embracing it, but I do so much development on this machine with close to a dozen languages that I've developed my nice project setup to handle it all, and it seems a little frustrating to have to change it all, I guess. I sort of prefer per-project stuff overall.
I may end up using a dedicated VM for it, perhaps, to get around it :)
Per project is just going to be a pain in the butt, honestly. It means you'll need to constantly swap out the gopath, and there's really very little harm in having all your go code in one giant gopath. The only time it is a problem is if you use different branches of a package for different projects. That has been very rare in my experience, hopefully it will be in yours as well.
However, I do know some people that have a gopath per project... you certainly can do it, it's just more work. But what you do need is some sort of gopath. It's fundamental to the language. In theory you could probably build without one if all your imports were relative, and you checked out code without go get... but you'd end up with non-idiomatic go code that no one else would touch with a ten foot pole, and you'd lose a lot of the cohesiveness of the tooling.
A couple of examples:
UPDATE: Please tell me what I said wrong here so that I can avoid being downvoted in the future. I was not trying to be offensive. Sorry.
”Standardisation” would be more like it.
Though you could have separate $GOPATH for each project. Note that $GOPATH can be colon delimited (though `go get` will download packages to the first directory in the list).
You could use something like http://swapoff.org/ondir.html to switch out $GOPATH depending on which directory you are in in your shell.
If I go get your package, and your package uses someone else's package, I get their code too. It's quite elegant. And all it needs is one little environment variable that says "store my go code here".
In my company, we have the convention for our internal Go projects to be checked out below $GOPATH/src in a $company_name/$project_name hierarchy, and that's also what you'd use as import path.
You don't have to use go get though, you can define import paths any way you like (e.g. relative to project pkg) and go run or go build /path/to/my/project to build your project with the -o flag to specify the output binary. As long as dependencies are where you specify, it'll happily build. So if you want per project dirs, it's perfectly possible to do that with the standard tools, but when sharing code people will expect to be able to go get etc. and relative import paths are frowned upon.
So if you wish you can pretty much ignore GOPATH, if you're not go getting dependencies, but if you're sharing it might be best to bend to the consensus which is to have one gopath and put all your projects there (they can of course be within project dirs within that gopath or linked to elsewhere).
Using the command line args is great for programs with small configs, but we find good old INIs and JSON to work better for large complex configs.
I think the deploy step outlined should be running the unit tests with the race detector enabled.
So with forking, you still have to reference a "vendor" path, as described in the linked article. You could use Git submodules or Git subtrees, or something homegrown, all of which add complexity and are not ideal.
To solve these problems I have started an experimental thing and I would love some feedback on it. I am calling it `gopkgr` and the idea to have a thing that will let you make nice tarball packages and install them. Eventually, we could have something like godoc host version-ed packages. I want to be cross compatible with `go get` but I also want to support more general situations.
For instance, right now it is really difficult to write polyglot go systems. In my research, I have a system that is go, java and python to tie things together. Super annoying to have such a polyglot system but I have different needs and each ecosystem offers the path of least resistance on each one of those needs. With the current go situation is not possible to create a re-usable package for the go code which is usable by other projects without breaking it out of the repo (which doesn't really make sense in this case).
In anycase, I don't want to solve dependency management with gopkgr. I want to solve packaging dependencies for repeatable builds without having to worry about code moving from this source code host to that source code host. (eg. google code to github or vice versa) So if you have good ideas in this regard. Let me know about them.
You can think of what I am trying to make as a language specific version of %.debs or %.rpms. Combined with proper dependency management, hosting, code signing and verification we could build a language specific apt-get. This is what python's pip is like. There are a lot of tricky problems between where go is at today and apt-get. Especially if we want to be resistant to things like evilgrade.
Or you could place the data behind an API. It would speak HTTP/Thrift/whatever and would be solely responsible for handling the data. Front the API with a cache if latency becomes an issue.
For your specific example, consider pushing data to autocomplete and search instead of having them pull.
For my own case, search and autocomplete use the same modeled data, but autocomplete for instance runs lots of precalculations on this data, so the data behind an API is not really a choice.
Not a go user (yet), but this one caught my attention as being a little ugly. I'm a fan of only using spaces.
-tabs=true : indent with tabs
What book would you recommend for someone who wants to learn about Go practices and professional tips? I'm not interested in a reference book that teaches me how to loop, but a book that teaches me applicable knowledge in a bit more advanced subjects.
I'm aiming to make Go my primary workhorse language.