Mid 2012 MBP (MacBookPro9,2).
The issue is present after a fresh reboot with no other applications running than Chrome.
My Chrome version is now 33.0.1750.117, which should be the current one.
iTunes and Safari audio output is always fine.
I run VMWare Fusion 6 virtual machines often, but that doesn't seem affect the bug way or another. Also, I only installed VF6 long after updating to 10.9.
Audio in Windows or Linux Chrome running in a VF6 virtual machine is perfectly good.
Just tested again, the issue seems to only affect Chrome playing Macromedia Flash content. I don't have Flash player installed, only Chrome's internal PPAPI Flash player.