In 400 AD, germanic people were known by names like "Goths". The viking period started several hundred years later. The relationship of Germanic people with England was that three groups of them, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, were settling there. A few hundred years later those people united in response to the Viking threat, then were conquered by the French duke of Normandy (which, interestingly, had nobility of Viking descent) and country became known as England and the people there became known as anglosaxon.
Just to give a sense of the timeline, stories of a legendary Celtic folk hero that was part of resisting the Germanic invasion later got carried to France in medieval times, mutated beyond belief, then reentered English as King Arthur.
I think you're right about the use of Viking being early, but some of the other elements differ from my understanding.
Two awesome sidebars from that period - another Germanic tribe, the Vandals, wrought havoc moving through what would become France and Spain. And a tribe of Scots were forced from their ancestral home ... in modern day Ireland. They replaced the earlier Picts in the land ultimately named after them.
[Edit: Corrected the Sacking of Rome date - I was out by 2 weeks. So worth clarifying that this is from my memory of university history courses, not a fact-checked review.]
However, the idea of a simple Irish "invasion" seems to be out of favour with archaeologists:
NB I've stood with my (booted) foot in the footprint on Dunadd where the first Kings of Scots, and maybe Fergus Mor were crowned ~1600 years ago - it's quite an interesting spot!
Edit: The idea that Scotland was founded by an invasion from Ireland is rather ironic given (much) later history: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plantation_of_Ulster
Most of it! That is what makes it so funny!
It is chock full of references to actual historical stuff, and in jokes that you have to know a lot to get. You can enjoy it as slapstick, but there is tremendous depth to the series.
I'm always amazed that it never caught on in the USA. Certainly everyone I've introduced it to has liked it!
Don't forget the Welsh-speakers who, for example, founded Edinburgh: I see arethuza has already mentioned http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y_Gododdin .
The sources I've seen (Jordanes, the Silver Bible's language) said that the Goths were Germanic. Around a decade ago, I know an archeologist that got research money for the Goth's origin, it wasn't known then.
Edit: As a Swede, this is important. I like to tell people that after the Mongols, most everything bad that happened to Europe came from Scandinavia... Goths, Vikings, 30 year war, Ikea, slimy pop... :-)
In that regard, I have to point out btilly's original description of Goths as an example of a Germanic tribe may be correct, though it still differs from my understanding (pending some refreshers on my behalf).
[Edit:] Actually, that should be England, not Britain in the previous sentence, Cnut already had "king of all England" in his title, so it was know as such before the Norman conquest (not surprisingly, the name derives from the Angles that settled there some centuries earlier, first written use of the name was in the late 9th century, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/England#Toponymy).
Isn't that out of order? England was Ango-Saxon for five hundred years before the Norman invasion.
In the 4th century, the Angles, Saxons and Jutes invaded and formed multiple kingdoms.
In the late 8th century the Viking raids began and got worse.
In the late 9th century, Alfred The Great combined the surviving Germanic kingdoms and was the first to style himself "King of the Anglo-Saxons". That kingdom grew from there.
In 1066, one of the claimants to the throne of England was William of Normandy. He conquered, and began centuries of England being ruled by French speaking people.
William in turn was a descendant of a famous viking named Rollo, who was granted a dutchy in return for defending the French against vikings (particularly including himself) instead of continuing to attack at will. Said dutchy became known as Normandy because Rollo was a Norse man.
It's in the name. Norman → North men.
'Celtic' is similarly inaccurate though. In all probability no-one in Ireland or Britain was ever Celtic, and no-one ever described them as 'Celtic' until the C18. (see http://www.amazon.com/dp/0299166740/ ).
Eh, no, that's ridiculously overstated.
He fed black ravens on the rampart of a fortress
Though he was no Arthur
Among the powerful ones in battle
In the front rank, Gwawrddur was a palisade
A serious omission from the article (although I suppose understandable, given how the article is focused) is how the inherent asymmetry is accounted for; usually, games are played either in two rounds, switching sides (so you have to learn to be good at both halves to win the full game), or by first betting on how many moves you think it will take you to win- lowest bet plays white and loses if they run out of moves.
I object to the casual description of Hnefatafl being similar to chess- it's a two-player strategy game played on a board, but it's no more similar to chess than checkers is. Chess players (while they might have an advantage in strategic thinking over the average person) in my experience have usually found that their chess skills don't transfer at all.
Looks like it's wikia page needs an update.
Random remark: It's often mathematically correct to go for it on 4th and 10.
Boardgaming does seem to help with basic arithmetic, and understanding and playing within a set of rules seems to be the essence of programming. (Especially once you realize that if you want to play to win, only the letter of the rules count, not the spirit. There's no meaning.)
Simplest games are often the bests.
But I don't care, I still believe my "Death Star Attack" was one of my best (yeah, I have invented tens of board games that nobody wanted to play with me :) )
A couple of apps too:
https://sensortower.com/android/us/bill-holohan/app/hnefataf... (Android - 2 player)
Building this game (back in 2007!) landed me my first job in the US and set me on the path to developing my first commercial games.
Uses webrtc, implemented mainly as a learning exercise for webrtc.
Does anyone have an idea if there's a mathematical solution to this game? Is there an inherent advantage that one or the other should win?
Tablut is a variant which:
'The interface lets you rearrange the fleets from the standard position before the play starts. You can
also change four optional rules. First gold, then silver can rearrange, add or remove ships, and alter the rule options. Then, gold can either make his first move, or elect to swap and play silver. This option assures that
the forces will be evenly balanced.'
All I can see right now are sets imported from English gift shops, or handmade versions, both of which exceed the $50 price point.
You can read about it here:
If you want to play it, get yourself the emulator - Oriculator:
.. or load it up on your own real Oric. ;)
Anyway, point is, its an interesting game indeed ..
love learning about new games like this. great find.