No. The sensor was developed by PrimeSense.
However, the key part of Kinect is the software, which was based on machine learning work done at Microsoft Research.
MSR is somewhat infamous for developing all sorts of whiz-bang prototypes that never make it to market. Kinect was an exception.
As for who convinced Anders Hejlsberg to jump ship, that was Bill Gates. He was still CEO of Microsoft in 1996.