While perhaps not entirely as mature and full featured as AWS's offering, Linode does offer an api with which you can script creation/initialization of test servers.
They also offer something called StackScript, that to me looks like some kind of configuration management script. https://www.linode.com/stackscripts/
But they do not make it very easy to spin up / down new instances. Setting aside the API, they bill you for a full month for a new instance as soon as you create it. True, you get a pro-rated credit if you delete it earlier but this is awkward and I think it only pro-rates by the day.
And StackScripts kinda sorta work, but they are hard to write/debug and are not portable. It's a pretty weak offering.