Quick reply (thanks for the well-formatted cited text!).
* Java didn't have the bad security rep until relatively recently. Java had nice-looking UX in the 90s (Netscape bought Netcode on this basis), much nicer than Web content. Didn't help.
* Web != Desktop. Large desktop apps are the wrong paradigm on the web. You won't see a Web-based Mathematica rewritten by hand in HTML/JS/etc. You will see Emscripten-compiled 3DS Max (see my blog on OTOY for more). The reasons behind these outcomes should be clear. They have little to do with JS lacking Java's big-OO features.
* Large mutable-state collection libraries are an anti-pattern. Functional structures, when hashes and arrays do not suffice (and even there), are the future, for scaling and parallel hardware wins.
* Conway's Law still applies. Too often, bloated OO code is an artifact of the organization(s) that produced it. This applies even to open source (Mozilla's Gecko C++ code; we fight it all the time, including via JS). It definitely applies to Google (e.g., gmail, Dart at launch). Perhaps there's no other way to create such code, and we need such programs as constituted. I question both assumptions.
* Glad you brought up refactoring. It is doable in JS IDEs with modern, aggressive static analysis. See not only TypeScript but also Marijn Haverbeke's Tern and work by Ben Livshits, et al., at MSR. But automated refactoring is not as much in demand among Web developers I know, who do it by hand and who in general avoid the big-OO "Kingdom of Nouns" approach that motivates auto-refactoring.
In sum, if the web ever becomes big-OO as Java and .NET fans might like, I fear it will die the same death those platforms have on the client side. Another example: AS3 in Flash, also moribund. These systems (even ignoring single-vendor conflicts) were too static.
The Web is not the desktop. Client JS-based code can be fatter or thinner as needed, but it is not as constrained as in static languages and their runtimes. Distribution, mobility, full-stack/end-to-end (Node.js) options, offline operation, multi-party and after-the-fact add-on and mash-up architectures, social and commercial benefits of the Web (not just of the Internet) -- all these change the game from the old desktop paradigm.
JS has co-evolved with the Web, while the big-OO systems have not. This might still end up in a bad place, but so far I don't see it. JS can be evolved far more easily than it can be replaced.
>* Web != Desktop. Large desktop apps are the wrong paradigm on the web. You won't see a Web-based Mathematica rewritten by hand in HTML/JS/etc. You will see Emscripten-compiled 3DS Max (see my blog on OTOY for more). The reasons behind these outcomes should be clear. They have little to do with JS lacking Java's big-OO features.
>* Glad you brought up refactoring. It is doable in JS IDEs with modern, aggressive static analysis. See not only TypeScript but also Marijn Haverbeke's Tern and work by Ben Livshits, et al., at MSR.
The problem with algorithms similar to Tern's is that it works well until we use reflexive capabilities of the language. However, most of the libraries do use them, and as long as it happens, algorithms such as Tern's infer useless type Object.
>But automated refactoring is not as much in demand among Web developers I know, who do it by hand and who in general avoid the big-OO "Kingdom of Nouns" approach that motivates auto-refactoring.
Another maintainability related feature is navigation to definition and find usages. Unfortunately, language dynamism makes them imprecise and code maintenance becomes nightmare especially if you have > 30 KLOCs of code. You have to recheck everything manually and it's very error prone. Tests can help, but they also require substantial effort.
>And I suggest you are missing the bigger picture: TypeScript, Dart, et al., require (unsound) type annotations, a tax on all programmers, in hope of gaining better tooling of the kind you work on.
In many cases types can be inferred. ML is able to infer almost all types in a program (however the algorithm requires that the language doesn't have subtyping). Haskell has very good type inference which support subtyping (you declare very few types). They both have strong static type system and don't tax developers by making them having to declare every type. Algorithms which are used in Haskell are complicated, but they can be implemented.
I know about ML and Haskell but let's be realistic. Neither is anywhere near ready to embed in a browser or mix into a future version of JS.
We worked in the context of ES4 on gradual typing -- not just inference (as you imply, H-M is fragile) -- to cope with the dynamic code loading inherent in the client side of the Web. Gradual typing is a research program, nowhere near ready for prime time.
Unsound systems such as TypeScript and Dart are good for warnings but nothing is guaranteed at runtime.
A more modular approach such as Typed Racket could work, but again: Research, and TR requires modules and contracts of a Scheme-ish kind. JS is just getting modules in ES6.
Anyway, your point of reference was more practical systems such as Java and .NET but these do require too much annotation, even with 'var' in C#. Or so JS developers tell me.