First, in education, sorting algorithms are used as prime examples of well-defined problems with well studied solution.. they are not taught because every student is expected to work on sorting problems for the rest of their life. It is usually the first part of a course on the design and analysis of algorithms.
As for my answer: Most of my time is definitely in the usual grind of software engineering: designing, testing, maintaining, etc... However, at my lab we have been engaged in a number of projects involving network protocol engineering and the development of formal code/model verification tools. As a first step toward the development of systems like this, you must be able to construct a precise formal model, and then show that in such a model, then so-and-so properties hold true (including memory usage, upper/lower bounds, stability [in cases of routing algorithms], intractability of certain values [in the case of secure protocols], etc...). If you are developing software for usual line-of-business type applications, you'll do much less basic algorithm development than if you are, say, developing the routing software for a wireless ad-hoc mesh network.