Absolutely. Your immediate technical management sucked, and you were made the scape goat for your management's failure. Welcome to the real world.
Don't get me wrong, you should feel bad, very bad, bad enough so that never again you do that. But you shouldn't feel guilty nor rethink your career.
A little bit of feeling guilty is in order; the author "didn't know that he didn't know", and I'm sure this motivated him to learn a lot more about proper engineering processes ... something I'll note aren't particularly a focus in CS degrees. Especially since I haven't come across anyone who's really dedicated to them who hadn't first gotten burned in one way or another.
There's a big difference between being told "Do X, don't do Y" and that sinking feeling you get when you realize a big problem exists, regardless of the eventual outcome.