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Preliminary experiments, but there's something some people are called the Obama Effect. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/23/education/23gap.html?_r=1&...

I heard about it on a podcast..I think it's either "How stuff works--stuff you should know" or "RadioLab", and they cited a study where they had a golf test for blacks and whites. The only variable was in telling them what it measured. When the experimenters told them it measured athletic intelligence, the blacks did worse, and the whites did better. When the experimenters told them it measured natural talent, then the vice versa happened.

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