"After 9 weeks on the WTP diet, this Enterobacter population in the volunteer's gut reduced to 1.8%, and became undetectable by the end of the 23-week trial"
So the thesis is that this bacteria lives in obese people's gut, and it makes them more obese. But once they diet to a point where they are not obese, the bacteria dies off? I wonder if they are going to try a diet + anti-biotic treatment, diet + placebo trial on two obese patients to see if it improves their chances to get back into a regular balance.
But before you think the researchers left a big hole in their research, remember that the addition of bacteria makes mice obese. Now if we could just try that on humans...
edit: As pdx points out below, not antibiotics, pre-biotics. Big difference.
Could be just the caloric deficit, could be the bacteria. It's an interesting correlation and should be explored further.
I believe the theory is the reverse - by killing off the bacteria, the person becomes less obese.
Anti-biotics probably won't work as well as you hope because they kill all the bacteria in the gut - good and bad - which will just create more digestive problems.