Many, but not all, of those algorithms will work for numbers which are a product of two roughly even sized primes (depending on size). Especially the Quadratic Sieve and Number Field Sieve class of algorithms (NFS, GNFS, SNFS, etc).
Size is key though. A rough guide of the GNFS times for a quad core PC would give:-
(c100 means a 100 digit composite number, doesn't matter if it is just the sum of just two evenly sized primes).
For comparative sizing:-
2^256 =~ c80
2^512 =~ c160
2^1024 =~ c320
So a 512-bit composite can be quite reliably factorised in a few months by a commodity PC. Parallelisation is a partial help, the first stage of the algorithm can be distributed, but the final stage(s) (~25% of the work) still requires a single machine to do the work.
Part of the hard work in choosing random primes to use within such encryption algorithms is avoiding numbers which are susceptible to each of those algorithms, e.g. avoiding primes with simple p-1 factorisations to avoid being susceptible to Pollard's P-1 algorithm.
The wrong choice of prime and the factorisation becomes (relatively) trivial.
Each prime is approximately sqrt of the product, not of size that is sqrt of size of product, the size of primes is approximately half of the size of their product. As they are primes their entropy is slightly lower than their length, but not too much (there are approximately x/ln(x) primes smaller than x, which would lead to entropy of 256bit prime being 248.5bits)