From PDF: "then gave Cyber Attacker Fake ZIP Archive with his own virus inside and the name “Georgian-Nato Agreement”."
It was possible because they already had an access to his C&C servers.
It's interesting that somebody that isn't a military organization or law enforcement (strictly speaking) comes out and admits that they infiltrated the exfiltration with their own malware. The idea has been around a long time but they had pretty good results, apparently!
I picture a somewhat disorganized system of Russian gov. employees sometimes working together and other times in opposition.
The Wikipedia article about the Russian FSB mentions certain internal groups spying on one another. It wasn't that long ago when federal agencies like the CIA and FBI were at odds and spying on each other.
Lets be honest no sensible Russian is going to say no to the FSB if they ask for a favor.
Seriously though, paranoid much?
Or I suppose some extended coding sessions? I can't imagine a real need for such extreme tactics but who am I to say it doesn't happen.