HTML5 Media Capture provides extensions to input tags to allow access to camera and microphone devices, eg:
<input type="file" accept="video/* ;capture=camcorder">
<input type="file" accept="audio/* ;capture=microphone">
It isn't widely implemented though (just in the Android Browser, Chrome on Android and Firefox Mobile).
Great to see that the future is being ushered in in a coordinated, organized, well-thought-out manner. Ugh.