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He's not proposing to make blocks first-class! That would mean you'd be able to assign blocks to variables, and that makes little sense. Blocks would remain special non-first-class entities.

No, he isn’t proposing that blocks be entirely first class. Although... Why not?

  foo ? bar.map { |x| x * x } : bar.map { |x| x + x }
Could be:

  bar.map foo ? { |x| x * x } : { |x| x + x }
Perhaps this is too much or too Ruby-ish:

  function either (pred) {
    return pred ? { |x| x * x } : { |x| x + x };



Consider the following:

    function map(a, cc) {
        r = []
        a.each{|e| r.push( cc(e) ) }
        return r
Now `cc` is some kind of callable. It might be a function or it might be a block.

Suppose `cc` is a block defined as cc = {|e| return e }

Does this mean the `return` in `cc` breaks out of the outer each-loop because it's a block as well, or does the return simply do the normal thing?

In the first case you need case analysis every time you write a higher order function in order to make sure the code flow makes sense. This is unacceptable.

The alternative is that the "return e" in `cc` behaves like it would in a lambda function (i.e. the map function works correctly). But that means that when you assign a block to a variable you change its semantic meaning. Also completely unacceptable.

I see absolutely no way to make first-order blocks work.


In the spirit of brainstorming, I think it’s cool to come up with some cases and ask, “what if?” In Yehuda’s article, he gives:

  withFile: function(block) {
    try {
      var f = File.open(this.name, "r");
    } finally {
This is interesting: “block” appears to be a “callable” object. How does the code know whether it will be a block or a function? Can you assign the block parameter to a variable? Pass it to another function? What about:

  function firstClass (block) { return block; }
Can I do this? If so:

  var thisIsaBlock = firstClass { |x| return x; }
And we’re off the rails. Or worse:

  (function () {

    var local = ‘0xDEADBEEF';

    return firstClass { || local }
If I am reading the code example correctly and my inference holds, then either (a) you have to do a lot of escape analysis to make this work, or (b) you get lazy and allow programmers to pass blocks around but emit an exception if you try to call a block once its lambda environment has already returned.

I guess I need to read the whole proposal... I am sure this has been addressed.


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