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Tao of Node – Design, Architecture and Best Practices (alexkondov.com)
123 points by kiyanwang 3 months ago | hide | past | favorite | 24 comments



We have generally followed that for years, this is great! A few big missing areas:

- node is also often the best for - 'backend for your frontend' ( batching/caching, ...) which adds a bit more complexity

- structured logging should really be tracing given the heavy async + services nowadays

- This architecture is normally done as part of some scalable m:n mapping, which is alluded to, but can be a full article to itself (tools, patterns, manual/auto operations, ..)

We have been moving Graphistry's regular stateless web backends to python as it converges with node on async but is easier to do our GPU + AI data services (and other reasons).. but been generally keeping our 'backend for the frontend' parts here. This could have been part of a primer in our internal docs, so bravo!


> structured logging should really be tracing given the heavy async + services nowadays

I’m a huge huge proponent of tracing but god I wish it wasn’t necessary. The inability for most programming languages to serialize and produce a sensible async stack trace is a source of constant pain that tracing bandaids over. The state is right there dammit! There’s one thread, the event order is centrally controlled and serializable, you have all the stack frames, just put them together, don’t make me keep a log just to know what actually happened in a program that isn’t at all random.


“To this day, it’s hard to find two Node applications that are structured similarly.”

I’ve seen a few Express applications that were mostly the same.


With auth, perms, db setup, templating, validation and migrations ?


This is a digression, but the book starts by saying that it's a benefit to the developer to have one language front and backend. I've been working on node/JS web apps for several years now, so this is my lived reality, but I don't like that it's the same language front and backend. Just as a web page with HTML, JavaScript and CSS lets me mentally separate the different aspects of the front end and context switch more easily between them (I'm never confused about what I'm addressing), I've found having JS both front and back end (separated by a GraphQL API) to require being more conscious of my environment. There are subtle differences between Node and the browser VM; there are different concerns with resource usage and concurrent operations.

When doing React I refused to follow Facebook's lead and relocate styles into the code. In my mind it just crowded the JavaScript and made for more code where multiple concerns where colocated. Am I the only one who felt this way?


> the book starts by saying that it's a benefit to the developer to have one language front and backend

I also cringed at that premise. JS sucks a lot, having it on both sides would make things worse. Yes TS can help here, but only so much. You cannot make up for a languages design mistakes by bolting on a type system. Also: making a SPA-like browser app makes thing think about the state of the application twice! This comes at huge cost. Simple page-to-page applications with SSR are waaaay easier to build an maintain.

When I do browser apps I prefer a strong-typed API spec from which I generate (1) client libs and (2) server stubs. This gives me some safety guarantees over the API barrier.

Using a language like Elm with an "elm-graphql" generated client lib is a bliss. Compile gQL queries in a type safe manner: if it compiles it runs. I feel there is soo much more "tao" (simplicity, peace of mind, zen, less moving parts) in this approach than in the JS-article I just read.


You can write this sort of guide for literally any tech, even the ones you think are better.

I've been using Elm since it came out and I use it for everything, but you could write a "Tao of Elm" that's just as in-depth as this. Just watch rfeldman's talks about how to structure large Elm projects (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DoA4Txr4GUs) or watch the community chat about how to do it, it's an open question.

For example, the Tao of Elm would give pointers on what you should send over ports, how granular you should even make ports, how to pick Msg types (LogIn User | LogOut vs. SetUser User), how to build a good Model, when to nest models, (a big one:) how to build parent/child communication, what should be implemented on the JS side instead of Elm side, how to represent fetch/wait/response loop when making http requests, etc. and then the trade-offs of all of those suggestions.

Being able to compile a list of best practices doesn't mean something sucks. Though the comparison to Elm isn't all that great because it doesn't even compete with Node, and if you do use it on the server with Elm.worker, you could write a whole other guide of best practices around that.

Anyone who has built a massive Elm client is shimmering with trail/error knowledge that they could share in this kind of format.

Anyways, be wary of developing a knee-jerk "JS sucks" response.


This is a great resource. I have come to the same conclusions after years of coding web apis and it’s very helpful to have it written down.


> It grew from a questionable technology to one used for critical infrastructure in many large enterprises. It performs incredibly well for high-volume IO operations with a much lower code complexity than languages that rely on multi-threading.

Well, that is not where one usually uses multi-threading (OS level threads), as the threads would possibly be bottle-necked by IO and there would be no use of having the overhead of multiple threads. IO does not become magically faster by using multiple threads.

Which languages "rely" on doing that? Many popular languages have green threads and many have asynchronous concepts. I would assume, that programming language designers are aware and do not prescribe using multiple threads for IO of multiple concurrent "execution units".

Note: Little typo in the TOC: "Cetralize error handling".


The complete failure of early Java iterations of green threads and fall back to 1:1 OS threads, along with terrible async ergonomics in Java, meant a lot of backend software was based on real OS thread e.g. per connection. The story was similar in C/C++ for different reasons - the details of select and its various extensions were some of the least portable parts of otherwise POSIX interfaces. And on the lower end e.g. Python also relied on OS threads unless you built your entire application around one of the early async reactors.

The real success story behind node is libuv. It's a shame it was married to such a mediocre language, but that language did have some of the least-bad async ergonomics at the time (nearly by accident - client-side JS had to yield to the browser frequently, and the language was mostly designed to run small code blocks instead of application lifecycles).


The author is saying “green threads” and “asynchronous concepts” are more complex than “everything is synchronous”.


I’m going to need to read through this a few times to give my thoughts on the opinions but I have to say:

Thank you for providing code examples of both what not and what to do. So many of these architectural principle articles just stay floaty and academic instead of having practical examples.


Very nice, I found myself nodding along with almost everything in this post. One thing I do a bit differently is that I usually put the API handlers in their own module (they're usually just a couple lines of code each), along with domain-to-api model transformers. This is because I often have various worker entry points as well, and it's nice to keep the domain logic separate from all the different entry points. I also like to keep all routes in a single file. I don't like to hunt down the full route path across a bunch of different files, and I like to be able to get a full overview of the API in one place. Just different tradeoffs I guess


This was really great and closely matches how we do it as well.

For people who generally follow this approach, what's your take on structured logging transaction traces, or more generally, propagating request-contextual information through the call stack? TFA seems to prefer a res.locals approach, but it's coupled to the framework in a way that the article avoids elsewhere, and needs manual propagation beyond the express handoff. I've seen these alternatives:

One team in my organization uses explicit context objets that get passed to every function call as the first argument, in a style very similar to what is idiomatic in Golang. I find this to be viral and not to compose well with third-party code that ends up calling your own code, which is rare with npm modules but somewhat common with company-internal libraries.

Another team was an early adopter of node async hooks to create the equivalent of a continuation local storage, with cls-hooked at around the time of node 8. They reported several problems that were implementation related, but seemed to prefer the developer experience of the approach, and context was preserved through third party code just fine. E: (Apparently this now ships standard in node with AsyncLocalStorage)


This is good stuff, but very little of it is specific to node. It’s more of Tao of Web APIs that happens to use node as the example language.


Agree, I find most of the content applies to my golang services


Great article. I also suggest watching Casey M. recent video[0] about Conways Law. How organization in your company determines what you can/will do and how organization of your code follows the same principles.

Starting with just the handlers and introducing layers as you make sure its time is great way.

[0]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5IUj1EZwpJY


The tao of node?

It reminds me of this story about a secretive master kung fu artist who perfected his technique but taught his style to no one. Yet the master still wanted to document his style in a kung fu manual. So he did, but as a security measure, he wrote everything backwards so that anyone reading it would get the wrong set of instructions. If a move involved a user blocking a hit with his arm he would write down that the hit should be blocked with his foot. Every move was a complete reversal of what should be done.

One day a thief stole the kung fu manual with the goal of reading it and becoming a great kung fu master. The thief read the manual day and knight and practiced just as much. And guess what? the thief became an incredible master surpassing the original author himself. Nobody could figure out his hilarious style, when you tried to punch him in his face his foot would immediately come up to deflect the punch. Everyone was WTF? How does this shit work? The thief ended up founding a kung fu school and taught everyone this style... proliferating the backwards art all across China, much like the same way Node has proliferated across the world.

I made the last part up because I thought it would be a more apt analogy. What actually happened is the thief went crazy because the the backward moves caused his chi to spin in the opposite direction... driving him insane. Anyway, this is what the Tao of Node reminds me of. I should also say so does the Tao of CSS and HTML and maybe the Tao of the entire web reminds me of this story.

Do these things really need to be associated with Tao as if it's some great art or philosophy? Feels a bit pretentious, but that's just me.


This was a great read! I've been using node on and off for personal projects for some time, and also always hated the fact that it was very unclear how you should structure a project. At least with django, it was clear. This provided a really nice set of techniques that I will be sure to put to use. Thanks!


This reminds me of that Python / Django (can't recall) architecture guide posted a while back. Most of it is just generally good advice for web service architecture, regardless of language or framework. The tooling section here gets more into preference territory though.



Wow this is so well written. I've been struggling with finding a method of organizing code and things. Coming from a rails environment I struggled finding a layout that wouldn't easily turn to spaghetti.

Thank you for taking the time and writing this!


This is a really great resource. All of theses tips are implemented in Nest.js framework. I can't recommend enough to give it a try, it'll force you yo have best practices.


Great work, Alex!




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