Nowadays people go hiking in the mountains instead and argue about math there. My algebra professor from college does a biannual kayaking trip.
Not a mathematician, but I spent a few years during high school hiking with math students, talking mostly about math. We even went on a sort of pilgrimage to Lviv to see the grave of Stefan Banach and of course the Scottish Café.
I still remember one actual conversation from that trip:
-Where are we anyway?
-What kind of response is that?
-The most precise I could give.
Discussing math while hiking is great, but regular meetings in cafes are a whole different animal. There's something about the repetitivity, the short meetings, the "mundane" atmosphere etc, which is good for me for math discussions. Hiking trips are too "special" to bring the same experience.
Just a thought.
So I could very well imagine that someone founding a Cafe looked at which names were already used in town and settled on "Scottish", maybe also due to 'underdog' sympathies perhaps with Scotland (?) but that is pure speculation on my part.
But there's a modern meaning of "pub" — via Korean!
A rural hotel/Restaurant is sometimes referred to as a Gasthof (Gast=Guest).
court of justice = Gerichtshof
royal court = Königshof
atrium = Vorhof
The Korean word your referencing seems to stem from Hofbräu, which refers to the royal court, Hofbräu is the Bräu (= brew) with the royal warrant (from the Königs-Hof).
Actually they have started in Cafe Roma but it has been too crowded and noisy and Banach decided to move to the other side of the street to Szkocka (Scottish) Cafe instead. Another reason Roma's owner wasn't keen to put on a tab. The Szkocka owner - Mr. Brettschneider was more friendly to mathematicians.
The food in Szkocka wan't particularly good in Banach's opinion and some older mathematicians (Hugo Steinhaus) preferred bakery of Ludwik Zalewski at Akademicka 22 which was famous for excellent cakes delivered even to Warsaw by plane.
Szkocka Cafe had been also frequented by journalists from Radio Lwów and cattle traders. The Cattle Market had been long time moved further from the city center but traders have liked Szkocka for closing trades.
Szkocka was also the home of Klub Konstrukcjonalistów - a discussion and literary club focused on aesthetics.
Lwów had its share of coffee houses - "Cariton" (dawna "Muzeum" obok Muzeum Przemysłowego), "Centralna" (obecnie na rogu ul. Jagiellońskiej i Trzeciego Maja), "Europejska" (róg ul. Czarnieckiego i placu Bernardyńskiego), "Grand" (dawna "Teatralna"), "George", "Imperial" (ul. Legionów 5), "Louvre", "Palermo" (ul. Rutkowskiego, róg ul. Kamińskiego), "De la Paix", "Roma", "Rouge" (ul. Mikołaja), "Sewilla" (pl. Bernardyński, róg ul. Piekarskiej), "Union" ("Hostynnycia"), "Victoria" (ul. Rejtana), "Warszawa", "Wiedeńska"
Google Translated > I also do not know where the idea of christening one of the cafes came from, according to the frescoes inside it, "Szkocka". Personally, this name reminds me of the famous jokes about skimpy Scotsmen and has always appealed - probably against the intentions of the host - to my savings, and maybe that is why it was partially closed for the time being.
Google Translated > "Szkocka": it has always been the place with the most heterogeneous audience among all Lviv cafes. University professors and couples in love, old gossipers and lonely newspaper readers, bibliophiles and billiards, Jewish intelligentsia and students from the nearby Academic House, all states and spheres, classes and races, religions and preferences lived here in harmony, not with each other, but next to each other, filling an average of half of the room. So "Scotch" was always especially nice thanks to the fact that it was never too full and never too empty. Somehow its capacity was happily measured. Various secessionists from the neighboring "Roma" were a large part of its audience; those who for one reason or another - sometimes because of oppositionism itself, and sometimes as a result of overpopulation - left their home tables in "Roma" and emigrated to "Szkocka", trying to establish a new, independent existence here.
I wish there was a model of public place where you and your pals could buy breakfast+lunch, or lunch+dinner, and occupy the table for the whole time in-between.
Bars let you stay for long periods, but after three or four hours everyone ends up hammered, which is a different thing.
Alternatively some dedicated study cafes would require a flat fee for a time duration and make drinks cheap instead.
It was also fairly common to leave laptops plugged in and leave for half an hour to grab a meal elsewhere and come back.
A few years ago, travelling in the US we, a group of European exchange students) I remember well how we were after lunch or dinner almost thrown out of restaurants by servers (i.e. brought the bill without having asked for it, etc.). I remember it so well because it really felt rude to me (we were not really hanging around unduly and might at times have ordered a round of deserts with a small break after the meal which the business then lost but that is another story).
Of course from a business perspective its better to get 3 parties to have lunch on a table than 2, and esp. in the US with the enormous tips (and lowered minimum wage) for servers, there are strong incentives for that kind of behaviour. Ultimately landlords/markets also factor this in when setting rent prices for restaurant spaces.
So to come back to the Kaffeehause-style establishments I always wonder how they were economically viable back then. Probably a combination of cheap labor, people spending quite a lot potentially in the Kaffeehaus [studying math, I guess they just rented a room (potentially not even heated) and not an apartment, then socialised outside or in cafes].
I think to pull off a Kaffeehaus for hanging out today it would probably work out more in a 'Club' model where you pay a membership fee which allows for stable operation.
Or maybe it was economically just as little viable as it is today, but people just didn't think that much about economical viability back in the old days?
Pretty sure a lot of what was done wasn't done with as tight calculations as it is done today. On the other hand, the markets weren't as unforgiven as today so it might have been easier to turn an investment into a profit.
It would be interesting to see the bookwork (if it even existed in the first place) of the Scottish Café, with supplemental informations by economists / historians putting it into perspective
I just can't think of a collaborative space where like-minded souls collide, aside from perhaps hacker spaces. Is there anything like those Paris cafés where seemingly all famous artists went and drank together?
You could do much the same in the local Starbucks, but the noise and how busy it was made it a bad place to work. The Union was generally quiet (and had an on-site library if you needed it), which was ideal. We also had a few supervisions in local pubs, but they'd generally only last an hour which sidestepped the drinking/taking up a table without buying drinks issues.
There were of course study spaces we could have used in college, but not having to worry about disturbing people as you were discussing things (as most people there weren't working) and having drinks/hot food available made it a much nicer place to work.
 Which you weren't really meant to do given they were selling food, but the staff let us get away with it.
One restaurant near me even has a plaque commemorating the group who has been eating lunch there for twenty years.
At least in Austria and Germany there are lots of places like that.
I miss the one that was near me.
English version of Scottish book http://kielich.amu.edu.pl/Stefan_Banach/pdf/ks-szkocka/ks-sz...
Manuscript of Scottish book https://web.archive.org/web/20180428090844/http://kielich.am...
The New Scottish Book PDFs https://web.archive.org/web/20170703172619/http://www.wmi.un...
> Once more, the Führer must point out that the Poles can only have one master, and that is the German; two masters cannot and must not exist side by side; therefore, all representatives of the Polish intelligentsia should be eliminated [umbringen]. This sounds harsh, but such are the laws of life.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Martians_(scientists) : those who escaped.
> He was executed by the Gestapo, probably in October 1943.
Stanisław Saks (30 December 1897 – 23 November 1942) was a Polish mathematician and university tutor, a member of the Lwów School of Mathematics, known primarily for his membership in the Scottish Café circle, an extensive monograph on the theory of integrals, his works on measure theory and the Vitali–Hahn–Saks theorem.
> Arrested in November 1942, he was executed on 23 November 1942 by the German Gestapo in Warsaw.
Thankfully most of them seem to have survived the war.
It's a shame that these days people are still into these murderous systems like communism and national socialism.
We never learn.
To be fair, democracy is also very murderous. Western countries are constantly killing thousands of civilians abroad in the name of freedom.
* “UN says more civilians killed by allies than insurgents” - https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-49165676
* “Costs of War” - https://watson.brown.edu/costsofwar/costs/human