>>>The author attributes the agency model to Apple
This is because it was Apple that devised the Agency Model and was the first to propose it to the Big Six publishers as a way of getting them on iOS. This led to Macmillan battling with Amazon one infamous weekend and had Amazon retaliate by removing all Buy buttons from Macmillan books. Amazon soon capitualted, other publishers -- except for Random -- piled on, moving to the Agency Model. When Random finally joined, all their books went up anywhere from $2 to over $7 in price.