At the same time, the low barrier of entry and hype has resulted in a huge amount of people downloading Keras, copying a bunch of code, tuning a few parameters, and then putting their result on arXiv so they can put AI research on their resume. This has resulted in so much noise and low quality work that it really hurts the field.
You don't need a degree, but I think you do need to spend some time to get a deep enough understanding of what's going on under the hood, which often includes some math and takes time. This can be made accessible and there are plenty of good resources for that. But all these "become an AI pro by looking at some visualizations and copying this code" is maybe hurting more than it helps because it gives the illusion of understanding when it's actually not there. I wouldn't want people learning (solely) from this touching my production systems, writing blogs, or putting papers on arXiv.
1. Read "Artificial Intelligence A Modern Approach" and complete all the exercises 
2. Complete a ML course I recommend the Andrew Ng Coursera one 
3. Complete a DL course I recommend the Andrew Ng Coursera one 
4. Complete specialization courses in whatever you are interested in such as computer vision, reinforcement learning, natural language processing, etc. These will cover older traditional methods in the introduction also which will be very useful for determining when DL is not the correct solution.
Additionally I suggest a data science course which usually covers other important things like data visualization and how to handle bad/missing data. Also, I learned a lot by simply being surrounded by brilliant people who know all this and being able to ask them questions and see how they approach problems. So not really self taught as much as untraditionally taught.
Unfortunately not a single person has actually followed the advice. Everyone has only watched random youtube bloggers and read blogs. Some have gotten into trouble after landing a job by talking buzzwords and asked for help but my advice does not change.
It does make it rather hard to find a job without a degree though, I would not recommend it. All of mine only come from strong references I have from luckily getting my foot in the door initially.
Edit: formatting, typo
> It was primarily driven by the need to solve problems for autonomous systems I was creating.
I wonder if your success also had something to do with the fact that you had a specific problem you were trying to solve. Did you feel that your specific problem put everything you were learning into context and made it easier to stay motivated?
As a side note, and I've found that this is one of the best ways to learn. Find a hard but obtainable problem and work towards it gathering all the knowledge you need along the way. What works for me is breaking down a project into a bunch of mini projects and so it becomes a lot easier to track progress and specify what I need to learn. That way even if you don't finish the project there's still a clear distinction of what you learned and can do.
I'm highly in favor of project oriented learning.
Absolutely, having focus on finding better solutions to a single problem for multiple years certainly helped putting everything into context and staying motivated. That is the biggest problem I think, really learning this stuff like is needed to in order to solve new problems takes years of investment and just can't be done in a week or a month. Pretty hard to stay focused on something for that long without a goal and support of some sort.
The way that having the specific long term problem to solve really helped was always having that thread spinning in the back of my mind thinking about how something new could be applied to solve part of it and possibly trying it out. Also thinking about if certain approaches could even be practical at all.
I suppose that is probably fairly similar to grad school though.
That's basically all you've done. Here, student, read these complex topics and at the end of it all you will have learned machine learning!
The art of being a teacher is much more nuanced. You (apparently) fail to present the material in a way that is accessible, relatable, and not overwhelming.
For example, the first thing you say to do is go read a college textbook front to back, and do all the exercises. And you're surprised that nobody has followed your steps?
The AIMA book has a lot of open resources around it that I always mention including a full open course I believe, it should all be linked on the site. Although, I also mention that while it is probably not a good idea they can possibly skip it and go right on to the ML course. Both of the Coursera courses are complete with lecture videos and work presented in a very accessible manner including interesting projects.
What is dangerous is reading a 30 minute blog post and getting the illusion of having some kind of understanding, when in reality it can take years to develop that. It's like cloning the postgres Github repository, compiling it, running a few queries, and then saying you've built databases and being hired to become the "database expert" at some company, spreading wrong knowledge left and right.
That's why the popularization of these quick immediate reward tutorials is dangerous. It takes time and effort to become knowledgable at something. Of course, many people are smart enough to know that these tutorials (or cloning the postgres repo) is just the first step on a longer learning journey, and in that case it's totally fine, but there are also many people who start thinking they are experts ready to work on research or production models after going through such things, not being aware of the many things they don't know 
This sort of "inside information" is immensely valuable for society, especially in a world consumed with PR.
Whenever people talk about making the FDA less strict I get shivers down my spine.
Was the snake oil salesmen really a better medical institution?
Machine Learning is a rich and varied field. Like most applied sciences, there is a spectrum from the heavily applied to the heavily theoretical, to some which try to span both sides of the spectrum at the same time (e.g. https://arxiv.org/abs/1704.04932).
All in all, not a great paper to prove your point imo.
That being said, I also don't think deep learning itself is not really a "science". The issue I have is you can't predict if a network will learn.
We're effectively testing deep learning networks the same way the Romans used to test bridges. Send a bunch of elephants over them, if it holds it's good enough.
There's obviously some indicators of success, but on a whole the overall interaction between components is very difficult to calculate and near-impossible to predict. While I think it's important to understand how layers interact and how a given function will impact your optimization, etc. it's not fully required to have a deep understanding of the mathematics, at least for most cases.
I also personally don't view anything on arXiv worth anything. I typically will read articles/papers myself if reviewing a candidate and / or would like to see their publications at conferences or journals. Otherwise, it's essentially a blog post (which IMO is fine, but will require me to review it).
Whether or not the predictions it is making satisfy unstated requirements is another problem altogether.
Well for human level tasks maybe, but what about other areas of research where we like to discover patterns not seen by a human? Like finding links between genomic interplay with external perturbation such as radiotherapy? It'll be very lucky to have such 'elephants' to test at all.
I am also currently reading a Programmer’s Introduction to Mathematics by Jeremy Kuhn (excellent book by the way I would whole heartedly recommend to programmers who have some background in math or thinking in abstractions but who want to learn more math) and it has a quote that states learning Mathematics is a lot like walking into a series of dark rooms and feeling around and getting a feeling of what is in the room until you flip on the light switch but then you could always go to a new room and start all over. I think in that sense machine learning is a series of rooms some lit, but a majority still dark that we haven’t grasped yet.
After all these years of FOMO on AI, this is music to my ears.
However, I’ve never found a practical use in software engineering.
Every time I think I discover something that could use machine learning, I usually don’t have any data to work with or don’t have a clear definition of what the inputs and outputs would be.
In the end, I find a way to develop a solution that doesn’t need AI and often makes me realize that AI would not have been able to provide the required reliability.
I even participated in a self-driving RC car competition (running on raspi 3). I ended up scrapping the ML solution because it could only run at 10 hertz which was not even close to what was needed.
I ended up writing a custom algorithm in C that ran at 200fps and could do “advanced” moves like backing up and course correcting.
I’m not saying that ML doesn’t have its place. I’m saying that right now it’s all about images and nlp and has huge costs.
In any practical usage, the ML parts that I would need are already available as a service that I can use almost free (like azure cognitive services).
This was brought home to me back in the 1990s at a place where we were trying to popularise expert system technology (a positively prehistoric form of AI). It was one of my first jobs in industry after leaving academia. The goal was to create a system that could predict the speed at which a unit of military vehicles could move so that a contact report expert system could decide whether two groups of vehicles could have feasibly moved between two points in a given time. The system could use this to help decide whether two reports referred to two different enemy units or a single unit that had moved from point A to point B.
After quite a lot of time cranking out and debugging rules to describe the movement behaviours, I realised that some simple convoy arithmetic would do just as good a job - units are often constrained by the speed of the slowest vehicle, and respect inter-vehicle distances. For most purposes this simple arithmetic was just as good (and orders of magnitude faster) than the complex rule engine.
For example, in my PhD thesis project, I am making a series of deep learning models to make a cardiac MRI autopilot. I've build a series of deep learning networks to localize the cardiac landmarks that define the cardiac imaging planes. And our group has even made it into a clinical prototype that works within our imaging workflow.
I think the field is shifting in that ML technologies are increasingly requiring domain level knowledge in order to make a practical endpoint.
Most of the failed projects basically were "Hire a Data Scientist to make a magic model" and nothing else was supported. Basically, "Here's some data, do some magic." I read somewhere that 90% of data is low/zero value, and I'd agree with that.
There's absolutely a place for people doing pure statistical or ML/Deep Learning modeling. But the rest of the organization has to support them so they can have that narrow focus. A lot of places want to take a shortcut and not do the data work.
5 years ago the FOMO was from Hadoop. Hadoop Here, Hadoop there...people just forgot you have to actually collect a lot of high quality data to make Hadoop useful. It's AI now.
I’ve also found operations research field to be more grounded and still have plenty of research opportunities. There’s something very fulfilling about optimizing a real-world system, particularly when the answer isn’t intuitive.
I'm Data Scientist and the hype is making me really jaded about the whole thing. I work in a customer facing role and it's just painful to see how many sensible and solvable problems with ML/Deep Learning get buried and destroyed under the pile of hype of solving unrealistic "sexy" problems with "AI." It was okay when Machine Learning was the hot thing, it's been awful since "AI" became the hot thing.
This seems extremely short-sighted to me.
If the barrier to entry (on an already relatively young technology) has come down so far that there are a bunch of noobs running rampant right now, does that not bode extremely well for future advancements in the field (assuming some non-zero conversion rate from noobs to productive members of the field over time)?
Also, let's not pretend that people with relevant degrees don't make shitty contributions to arXiv all the time.
If the problem is finding new papers, then you really should be using sources other than arXiv.
Any company who hires based on a simple hello world might be the company that doesn't even know why they want ml but follow the trend. This person might be the best candidate because they can think about ml on a slighly deeper level than the company and can help bridge that first step. They probably know the buzzwords, what's hot that's important to marketing.
I think we’ve seen impressive contribution from people without PhDs. Chris Olah and Alec Radford come to mind first. (Note: I’m not implying that you disagree with that statement, just wanted to point some role models out to those without PhDs who want to contribute to the literature.)
High quality work comes from a tiny incisive fraction of the research community. Most published research, even from PhDs, isn’t worth reading. Easily accessible tutorials promoting Colab are not the problem!
compared to machine learning, other research communities in computer science have much less nonsense. you can really feel the difference in quality if you look at papers accepted to equivalently competitive non-ML conferences.
i think the broader problem may be that people hiring for very lucrative, competitive jobs are effectively outsourcing their hiring decisions to conference reviewers, which causes the whole system to break down.
I'm sorry but given that many papers in NeurIPS, ICML, etc are exactly what you described I find your criticism a bit lacking.
Note that this is not a problem exclusive to AI or Computer Science.
I have a hobbyist interest in Entomology, and I was so disappointed to see that people are still pumping out papers that are minor tweaks off old population modeling papers from the 1980s. The field is shockingly stagnant. I've read random PhD theses from the 70s that are written on damn typewriters that are higher quality than modern papers from so-called "top tier" research universities.
That’s one way of looking at it. Perhaps another way is ask why all of these employers are hiring people who have done low quality research without understanding who they’re really hiring.
It reminds me of the adverse market effects on gamers when Bitcoin miners were buying up all the GPUs a few years ago. It’s another emergent collective phenomenon that’s distorting the market.
I think there may be quite a few employers out there with non-technical management who have become convinced that they need to hire a machine learning expert, without any particular reason why. They might hear a competitor has hired someone and so they need to as well. Really weird.
1. There is much more supply than demand in terms of Machine Learning and Data Science. There aren't actually that many jobs outside of research, it's just that the hype makes it look that way. Now that all these PhDs seem to be starting in ML, I wonder what they will do in 4-5 years when they finish the degree. I don't think a market for them will exist.
2. Many companies don't know what they are doing. They are hiring ML people because they want to put AI into their marketing materials. In reality, they don't need ML, they just need someone collecting data, building a database, and running a query. They just don't realize that's the case. The same happened with "Data Science" and "Big Data" - What most companies needed were software engineers building infrastructure and data collection, not people running sklearn.
Somebody should start a thread that captures the silly examples of this. My personal favorite was a workout template “powered by AI”. Mind you, the only information the customer provided was the basics like age, sex, weight, and goal. This signaled peak AI hype for me.
The massive hype surrounding anything “AI” has caused the literature to become a dumpster fire, yes, but a handful of good papers still appear. Just use a low pass filter as with most things these days.
This is perfect for the people I work with and the role we have (and I am talking about some of them are PhDs in math and physics but without much CS knowledge). Some of this people just need to see this is a stack of non linear functions that have to be minimized and they grasp the idea of nn really fast.
To me this would be like saying that if you don't know computational complexity theory or how compilers work you are not a good software developer, but I think is just a different level and as long as you don't try to inflate your resume is fine.
Sometimes I feel some fear on AI field when the knowledge is spread, and there is a bunch of backgrounds (maths, physics, quantitative finance, chemistry, ...) that need exactly this to at list demistify nn.
On a more serious note, yes understanding this and anything really takes time and investment. The problem for me at least originally not only with ML but originally with engineering back when I was trying to learn (and couldn't afford school), was finding quality sources for getting started in that process of learning. By providing simplified resources like this google one, the hope is that many beginners can get that one "aha!" moment where they start the basic understanding that allows them to start tinkering and learning.
People without a decent understanding shouldn't be submitting research papers, full on agree there. It's basically a waste of everyone's time and harmful for the field of research as a whole as it dilutes the overall signal to noise ratio. However there's so much space in the ML world that doesn't involve research, not only for fun hobby projects, but also even professionally. Resources like this are critical to reducing the knowledge gap out there between researchers and the programmers in the field that work on little ML projects for doing things like sentiment analysis for their company.
These sub-research projects are mission critical at a lot of companies yet are held up at the majority of non-FAANG companies because there's only one data scientist while the teams of engineers are clueless as to how to assist.
Then the problem isn't the low barrier and ease of use, it's with arXiv's filtering and how resumes are valued and verified.
People want cheap everything, and a race to the bottom happens.
Heck, I've encountered plenty of ML jobs that didn't require anything more than familiarity with some known frameworks or libraries, and being able to apply known methods to real-world data / problems.
So I can absolutely understand why people are copy/pasting tutorials or papers, and just doing some slight changes. You're practically miles ahead of the competition, when it comes to the job search.
You need to understand things like multicollinearity, coding biases, missing data techniques, convergence of Markov chains, learning curves, mechanics of various higher order gradient optimization methods, how to really carefully evaluate goodness of fit in a huge range of categories of models (neural nets are the vast minority of all models used in production settings) and a ton more beyond this.
If you read “tensorflow for hackers” and believe you can write production neural nets, it’s a disaster.
Garbage in equals garbage out.
I'd say that a solid 4 in 5 of the jobs I've interviewed for, which were tagged in the ML domain, were just that. Typical [x] analytics jobs which don't really require more than stats 101, and good handling of excel. Basic scripting knowledge were often in the nice-to-know section.
Now, there might be a world difference in the typical ML jobs you see in startup hubs like SF, and the jobs you see elsewhere - but companies are, and have been for almost 10 years, been desperate to get onboard of the hype-train, and have re-banded a lot of jobs to attract those wanting to work with ML or Data Science.
Yes, for a lot of this stuff you don't need a PhD (and frankly I find that marketing weird for the above course). But you do need strong intuitions, understanding of some CS, and math "savviness" i.e. you don't have to know All The Math now, but you should be able to pick up stuff as needed, when you're trying to understand your problem and/or structuring your solution.
One could learn all of this stuff online today - the amount of good resources out there is crazy. Frankly, I am jealous, because I began working on ML more than 10 yr ago, and we were relatively starved for resources on pretty much all fronts: resources to study from (reading material or videos), affordable compute power, s/w libraries. But unfortunately, despite their abundance today, most people don't take the time to dive deep. Of all the years of me suggesting courses and books to people (when asked), only ONE (or maybe two) person managed to go through them to a fair extent. But there is a significant fraction of the rest, for which reductive messaging like "become a pro in AI in 3 weeks" has been misleading.
As a hiring manager sometimes they are as surprised as me, when an interview doesn't go well, after the resume seemed promising to both sides. And to be very clear, I don't blame them (sure, there are some pretentious opportunists, who flat out lie, but I've found them not to be the norm); all this messaging seems to have created a bubble where often you don't know what you don't know. It's amusing that thrice, rejected candidates reached out me saying that the interview was quite eye opening! I have been at the receiving end too - where 90% of the interview seemed to be about some very specific setting of a library or a method, because that was the conception of ML the interviewer had.
I think people should learn, by whatever means, and create stuff because they can - this is the best kind of learning. Silly projects are great too, if they are fun - if they don't advance your understanding, they might motivate you to be less silly! What's missing in this ecosystem is honest messaging about where your skill levels really are. I don't know how to fix it in a way that also doesn't harm, in some way, the widespread learning/awareness reg ML. On a smaller scale though, I have accepted that this has increased my scope of work in screening resumes: if someone lists her github repo, or an arxiv paper, I actually need to spend time to go through them. I don't see this as noise, but a widening of the spectrum of available ML skills in the market; and I need to put in some effort to place an applicant in this spectrum. I've accepted that this is the flipside of working in a hot area: for the multiple job opportunities accessible to me, I have to put in more thought for hiring. I can't have the luxury of the former without the responsibility of the latter. Although, being lazy, I'd totally want to ;).
Some of my current results are:
The voices need better data curation and longer training, but some speakers such as David Attenborough are quite good.
I've also built a real time streaming voice conversion system. I want to generalize it better so that it can be an actual product. I think it could be a killer app for Discord. Imagine talking to your friends as Ben Stein or Ninja.
I've been watching TTS and VC evolve over the last few years, and it's incredible pace at which things are coming along. There are now singing neural networks that sound better than Vocaloid. If you follow researchers on Github (seriously, their social features are a killer app!), you'll see model after model get uploaded - complete with citations, results. It's super exciting, and it's the future I hoped research would become.
If you're diving into this, I would recommend using PyTorch, not TensorFlow. PyTorch is much easier to use and has better library/language support. TorchScript / JIT is really fantastic, too. I even mean this if just you're poking around with someone else's model - find a PyTorch alternative if you can. It's much easier to wrap your head around. TensorFlow is just too obtuse for no good reason.
You mentioned elsewhere you're renting the V100s, what services have you used, and would you recommend them?
By the way, your Trumped.com is throwing some errors in the console so the site isn't working for me.
Keep up the good work!
Nope. glowtts. Tacotron2 has higher fidelity (it's a denser network), but it's really slow and expensive to run.
> are you using a base model before you train up new speakers
Absolutely! Transfer learning is essential to training on sparse or limited data, and it's incredibly effective.
> How long do you run the training for normally
> and what hardware are you running?
I think I explained this in my other answer? But if not, it's typically awhile. The best guiding light though is to frequently listen to the inference results. Are they improving? Watch the Tensorboard graphs to see what loss and attention look like and make sure you're actually learning.
> By the way, your Trumped.com is throwing some errors in the console so the site isn't working for me.
Oh no. I realize there are some bugs I left for iPhone (simply because I don't have one), and I really need to get those fixed. I'm not sure if this is your case or not. Perhaps the pods with the Trump model are also experiencing duress -- I'll need to investigate that too. I have yet to hook up monitoring (yikes).
And don't worry, PhD requirements are overrated
There's a reason for the word omission: I'm using the CMUdict Grapheme -> Phoneme database. There are 140,000 entries, but it doesn't capture everything. I've had to add words like "pokemon" and "fortnite".
I'm looking for a model that handles arbitrary grapheme/word -> phoneme/polyphone transformation. I'm also interested in perhaps replacing Arpabet with IPA (using the existing arpabet database to construct it). This might work well for non-English languages.
Do you happen to know an existing model that does this?
So much work to do... :)
I'm pretty serious, so I've put some money into it. And even more time.
I've got a 2x1080Ti setup I used locally back in the day, but it's really slow. I still train stuff on it, but only things I know will train successfully for a long time (eg the Melgan model).
I use rented V100 GPUs to train the speaker models. They're quick and allow me to refine the datasets and parameters much more quickly than if I was doing all of it on my own box. Colabs are great and I could probably get along with them if I wasn't running so many experiments in parallel.
I can get reasonable results in a few hours on an 8xV100. Once I hone in on a direction I like, I'll let it train for a few days. (The David Attenborough model is a result of this.)
I still have a ton of refinement to do. I'm also working on singing models, and these should be ready by the weekend.
I've thought about buying beefy GPUs at this point as I've proven to myself it's not just a temporary hobby. Cloud compute is expensive.
The models are hosted on Rust microservices (a frontend proxy that fans out into multiple model servers), and this is deployed to a Kubernetes cluster. I'm planning to add more intelligence to the proxy and individual model containers so they independently scale.
This video was an absolute eye-opener me  on what classification is, how it works and why a non-linear activation function is required. I probably learned more in the 5 minutes watching this than doing multiple Coursera courses on the subject.
Overall, working with people with different backgrounds, a ML-related PhD is usually not correlated nor anti-correlated to these people having a good understanding of the relationship between models and and their applications.
I wish we could leave the framework and name-dropping behind and talk more about what it takes to evaluate predictions, how to cope with biases, etc.
The way I see it, ML/AI is nothing more than a marketing campaign for much of the industry and few people realize that it's often a small component and rarely a major selling point for anything. Like "ml-powered kitchen blender" or whatever. As you said, few people discuss evaluating predictions, tackling biases. I suspect because most people are a lot more interested in snatching a piece of the cake.
It's different. With the ML stuff there's a bunch of actually useful applications and interesting problems at the core with a lot of fluff and marketing piled on top of it. That's the reason why you're seeing the ML/AI hype last so much longer than blockchain (which was basically a quick cash grab with no substance).
LOL...I thought supermarkets were using blockchain to track the provenance of their cabbages, coffee beans, beef joints, etc LOL
I think you have a point about ML/AI. To my mind, judging by the hype, there seem to be a lot of solutions looking for a problem. Having said that I feel I should also jump on the bandwagon and get my ML/AI credentials as an insurance against future demand for the skillset ;-)
We can, can't we? "We" as in professional software developers. I always thought of this word-hyping of a management thing and a buzzword pool for non-techies.
I know this influences our work, but that doesn't keep us concentrate on what's really up... or am i wrong?
By the way, I tried getting into ML but i'm really poor at maths and at that time was not willing to put time into maths. And nearly every tutorial back then threw formula after formula at my face... So a bit of mathematical education could not hurt. Doesn't have to be a PhD though.
Its just tiresome because it is tiring to refute BS or to explain why a certain approach is not viable.
> So a bit of mathematical education could not hurt
definitely but the word "PhD" is often welded as if you'd have to have secret knowledge that is otherwise not accessible to you, which isn't true.
Time to find another field of interest then.
this is precisely the myth discussed in this post.
a) Loading SavedModels is a pain. I has to trawl the Tensorflow repo and Python wrappers to see how it worked.
b) It's incredibly slow. It added ~250ms to our latency. We had to drop it.
c) It has a C++ framework that doesn't work out-of-the-box, you have to use the C lib that wraps an old version of the C++ framework (confused? me too).
d) It's locked to C++03.
Tensorflow-Lite looked to fit the bill for us, but our model weren't convertible to it. We no longer use Tensorflow.
TensorFlow is designed by committee and is more of a brand now than a machine learning framework. Did you know there is TensorFlow Quantum?
A couple years ago I started studying ML, and I have a design background, so I needed to digest all the math and concepts slowly in order to understand them properly.
Now I think I understand most of the fundamental concepts, and I've been using it quite a lot for creative applications and teaching, and I have to say the best resource I've found for beginners, by far, is "Make Your Own Neural Network" by Tariq Rashid.
It starts really from the beginning and it takes you through all the steps of building a NN from zero, with no previous knowledge. really good.
That being said, the business / marketing use of terms like "AI" is way out of control.
I have devoted close to 100% of my paid working time on deep learning for the last six years (most recently managing a deep learning team) and not only has the technology advanced rapidly but the online learning resources have kept pace.
A personal issue: after seven years of not updating my Java AI book, I am taking advantage of free time at home to do a major update. New material on deep learning was the most difficult change because there are so many great resources, and there is only so much you can do in one long chapter. I ended up deciding to do just two DL4J examples and then spending most of the chapter just on advice.
The field of deep learning is getting saturated. Recently I did a free mentoring session with someone with a very good educational background (PhD from MIT) and we were talking about needing specializations and specific skills, just using things like DL, cloud dev ops, etc. as necessary tools, but not always enough to base a career on.
Definitely it can help peoples’ careers working through great online DL material, but great careers are usually made by having good expertise in two or three areas. Learn DL but combine that with other skills and domain knowledge.
PhD is overrated in the deep learning context. It is more about forging the intellectual resilience and ability to pursue ideas for months/years than learning useful things/tricks/theorems.
Isn't this what a PhD generically signals?
Having those sorts of resources to introduce junior folks to advanced concepts are really great to me- my experience is that I learn a lot more by reading a good tutorial than a theory book, up until I need to do advanced work (this is particular to my style of learning; I can read code that implements math, but struggle to parse math symbology).
def boxfilter(image, N=3):
shape = image.shape
image = tf.reshape(image, [1, shape, shape, -1])
C = image.shape[-1]
conv = tf.nn.conv2d(image, tf.eye(C, C, [N, N]), 1, "SAME")
return tf.reshape(conv, shape) / (N * N)
Torch doesn't have "same" padding, so you have to manually calculate the correct padding value for your input/output shapes.
1. PyTorch C++ API which can trivially load and execute your models exported via JIT
2. ONNX export and inference in TensorRT (highest performance inference option)
3. Or just deploy straight up PyTorch Python code - it'll run fine in "production".
One place where PyTorch is weaker than TF is mobile. TFLite is a lot more mature and has all sorts of acceleration support (GPU, DSP). So if that's what you need, at this point there's really no other good choice IMO.
- Today AI|ML does not have the capability marketed by these big companies. Incidentally marketing is targeted at governments, big non tech companies and gullible undergraduates.
- Undergrads many a times take these training courses wherein they acquire the skill set to call these APIs and flood the job market wherein a data-entry or data-analyst job is tagged as AI|ML job.
- High paying jobs in AI|ML still require a Masters or PhD or a mathematical background.
In conclusion, the current hype around AI|ML is misguiding gullible undergrads and governments(I dont mind the government being cheated THOUGH).
It might not save you from making stupid mistakes or wasting your time, but at least you will know what mistakes you can - and will - make.
so i totally agree with your statement. big corps overhype the shit out of it in order to sell and lots of n00bs fail for it.
regarding your last points. even if its super easy nowadays to deploy YOLO, and everyone and his mother can do it, making actually something that works and provides business value is hardcore. and without scientific skills_> no chance
- looking very carefully into the very specific challenge of your client
- figuring out how (and if) ML can help
- figuring if its still economically feasible (costs of research vs perceived(!) benefit)
- deriving a solution.
- tinkering tinkering tinkering. usually more with the data than with the models :-)
All my A.I. projects are essentially outsourced R&D projects where we deliver the brain and computing power. So far, it never was as easy like installing YOLO or any other off the shelf product.
You also need very often custom software to create custom datasets. AI models are often only tested on academic datasets but I observed empirically that their performance transfers badly to real world datasets. So you need to create your own datasets etc. This is often a non-trivial problem. So I wrote a lot of dataset creation tools in my AI practice.
The best thing you can do to make yourself good at this is to practice. Get some Kaggle data and try to fit a model. Realise your data is crap, clean data, repeat.
Every useful system is hand made in the sense that there's a vast amount of set up and operational code. Mostly the model's the easy part (although it will take so much time to run).
In my case, I train my model with them and download to use on our machines without having to touch any ML related code.
So lets see. Suppose you do a Google Certification for AI|ML. This makes you an apt user of Google's AI platform. Your value lies not with Google but with other companies that want to use Google's platform for AI, ML work.
For specific AI,ML work(like developing the API that you are using), Google will hire PhDs and grad students who specialise in AI|ML. For engineering solutions of those products Google will hire software and distributed systems engineer. You will be hired by someone who wants to use Googles platform.
IMO if you’re interested in AI research or ML engineering, you already know that — in order to avoid getting people killed - you have to understand how it works under-the-hood. You’re doing yourself, your employer and your fellow humans a favour.
Just keep up the good work, and ignore the bullshit. If an AI winter comes, you’ll be well prepared to migrate to another engineering role.
Applied Data Science does not require developing as yet unseen architectures, being able to read cutting edge papers and applying the research is more than likely to enough.