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I think you just hit upon the most overlooked factor here, storage hardware. You can get an order of magnitude of benefit from moving to NVMe.

Especially when you look at nvme benchmarks using small files , they can be over 10 times faster than regular SSDs in those scenarios and have beefier firmare too.

I have a strong feeling that the reason databases crap out in containers is mainly because you're likely using a dynamically allocated volume with them. While your cloud providers storage solution will handle their all errors and redundancy for you, it wont provide consistent latency or even bandwidth. The hardware of the storage server will usually consist of old worn out SATA ssds ( which albeit being advertised as 250-500mbps, can drop down to 10-20 mbps in high loads).

When combine this along with noisy neighbours all sharing the same same pathetic storage bandwidth then yeah your database is gonna have trouble dealing with all the tiny errors in your I/O chain.

Whereas nvmes, especially ones that are local to the machine, running at 2000-4000 Mbps, and over 200mbps even at the most demanding benchmarks, wont have any of the issues. Their firmware is usually a lot befier and faster at dealing with bad cells.






This is the thing that keeps my databases off the cloud. No amount of managed database convenience can convince me to give up the performance of hard metal with modern NVMe SSDs. And if you really want that kind of performance in the cloud, the cloud providers are just barely starting to catch up, and it's gonna cost you dearly. I've seen managed database setups costing $3-4k per month that could be had with an $8k server.



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