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KVM host in a few lines of code (zserge.com)
158 points by stargrave 12 days ago | hide | past | web | favorite | 19 comments





> However, no one forces you to use KVM directly. There is libvirt, a nice friendly wrapper for low-level virtualization techniques such as KVM or BHyve.

No, that's not what libvirt does. libvirt abstracts handling of tools like Qemu, or LXC. No lowlevel stuff.

When people talk about libvirt, they usually mean the libvirt daemon that manages VMs or containers using other programs and accepts XML machine descriptions as input.

The actual "libvirt" library is simply a front end library for talking to the daemon and is used internally by tools like virsh (CLI) or virtman (GUI tool).

Some ~7 years ago I used the libvirt library for a small in-house tool. It has the possibly shittiest API ever designed. No abstraction whatsoever, just a couple C functions that accept XML strings as input and possibly return XML responses from the daemon.


(Part time libvirt developer here ...) I argued early on for libvirt to model things properly through a C API. Obviously I didn't succeed. I eventually wrote a bunch of "interesting" C macros to make it easier to create and submit XML documents: https://github.com/libguestfs/libguestfs-common/blob/master/... Example usage: https://github.com/libguestfs/libguestfs/blob/b9065fa7adc931...

However these days when just about everything is a service accessed by shuffling poorly documented and type-unsafe JSON documents over the network, maybe libvirt was just ahead of its time ... [Libvirt XML is incredibly well documented, probably in some ways over documented.]


I think you underappreciate libvirt here. The qemu command line interface is really quite ugly and awkward to use. You might imagine that, in wrapping it, libvirt might fail to make it worse. But they actually succeeded!

(To be fair, if you're stuck for ideas for making something nastier, wrapping it in XML isn't a crazy starting point.)


qemu has its own (often unnoticed) config file format `-readconfig fname`. I use it instead of the command line when things are getting out of hand.

-readconfig is incomplete. You cannot express all features (and even several common features) through the config file. Also the config file field names are sometimes different from the corresponding command line names. It's considered an appendix by the upstream developers so don't be surprised if it disappears one day.

What features have you had problems with?

> It has the possibly shittiest API ever designed.

Used libvirt for LXC, before "Docker" was the new kid on the block. Once we got it working it was great... but libvirt itself, ugh. There were some rubygems that abstracted some of the pain, that helped. Still the ugliness would poke through.


> It has the possibly shittiest API ever designed.

This was my experience as well. The only time I get near libvirt anymore is to read source; because sometimes it's the best documentation for a qemu feature.


No matter how shitty it is, nothing beats the qemu cli syntax. What horror...

There is also this LWN article which covers much of the same ground: https://lwn.net/Articles/658511/

I do like here that the author here went beyond minimal hello world and also showed how to boot linux


It's remarkable how much traction that article has gotten over the years; it's also cited by crosvm, rust-vmm, Firecracker, and many other virtualization projects.

Thanks for writing it!

I've shared that with a lot of people, because it's a great introduction to stepping through the abstraction of QEMU (or libvirt or whatever) and seeing what KVM can do. There's some good articles that start from VMx on up, which are fun too, but much more involved than KVM.

In general, this is a kind of technical content I'd like to see more of: here's a lower-level API, what can I do with it?


I enjoy such articles as well, especially when the lower-level API is something that most people only use through one piece of complex high-level software.

Similarly, it's fun to study containers starting with "unshare" and "clone".


Top tip, thanks

Indeed it was that lwn article that I used as a reference to write the very first code in crosvm. Excellently written.

It would be trivial for VirtualBox to use KVM instead of shipping an (out of tree) kernel module that uses the vmx instructions directly. I don't understand what exactly is blocking VirtualBox from doing that. They already use HyperV in Windows instead of abusing vmx directly.

They could still keep their qemu fork and everything so that the driver compatibility is still top-notch, but at least they would not require out of tree kernel modules, and VirtualBox would also be concurrently usable with other KVM users.


Methinks IP may have something to do with that, but I'm not sure how.

I seem to remember that they've said it's because they think that their kernel driver has higher perf than KVM on latency sensitive I/O.

If you're interested in "other things" that can be done with KVM, take a look at the Solo5 "hvt" tender: https://github.com/Solo5/solo5/tree/master/tenders/hvt.



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