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You are right that the power necessary to parse a language is completely different from the power of the language itself.

There is however a different correspondence between recognizing things and computing functions. If we encode a function as taking a bit string as input and generating a bit string as output, we can turn it into a series of recognition problems as follows: "recognize given S as input, whether bit i of f(S) is 1".

Given all these recognizers, we can compute the function, and given a method to compute the function, we can implement the recognizers.

That is, you can reformulate the question "is f computable" to a series of language recognition problems.

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