TeX is very Turing complete. As is Java sans semicolons, C macros, and many other things that probably shouldn't be. Right now, I'm trying to figure out what the minimum number of characters you need in Ruby is to make it Turing complete. I'm pretty sure that if you restrict yourself to under 12 characters, it's still possible.
But what's in that string? That still counts. What I should have done was put an additional restriction on what IO is available. Otherwise, something like "eval `cat f`" or something could be all powerful.
Sure, but it counts regardless of what you're talking about. We don't generally talk about charging data against the TM because they all need data of some sort to do anything interesting. "eval" still gets you there. (Pedantic.)