Hacker News new | past | comments | ask | show | jobs | submit login
Secure by Design (henrikwarne.com)
226 points by henrik_w 11 days ago | hide | past | web | favorite | 90 comments





  Size. A payload of one million characters should probably
  be rejected without further analysis. As well as checking
  the total size, it is good to check the sizes of the parts.
Another thing to check, that is often overlooked, is Quantity.

Every loop should have a limit. There should be no unbounded object allocation. Usually, it's not the big things that get you but the sheer number of small things.

For example, a 20 MB email with 4 million empty attachments:

https://snyk.io/blog/how-to-crash-an-email-server-with-a-sin...

Further examples that affected ClamAV and SpamAssassin:

https://blog.clamav.net/2019/11/clamav-01021-and-01015-patch...

http://mail-archives.apache.org/mod_mbox/spamassassin-announ...


The only problem with this approach that I have encountered is that is requires defining fairly arbitrary limits that are either so small that some user will inevitably run into them or so large that you're not getting as much protection as you think.

NB I don't know what the answer to this is, but pretty much any time a system I have been involved with contains a "reasonable" limit then people want more than that pretty quickly!


The problem you describe is not actually specific to this approach, the same would apply to any Size check, or any limit in general.

In fact, I think the problem is less relevant to a Quantity check, where an order of magnitude headroom above normal usage goes a long way, more so than a Size check.

For example, do you know of people who receive 10,000 attachments per email? This limit would be far and away above any reasonable usage and yet provide decent protection at the same time.


If you choose an arbitrary limit orders of magnitude above normal use, then you probably don't have any protection. Most systems are scaled to reasonable use, so an additional 1000x load in a dimension could bowl over the system.

Even defining "normal use" is intractable. For instance, most docker layers are a few MB, but some people are deploying 3P software packaged as a container with 10 GB in a single layer. You can't fix their container. They can't fix their container. Your definition of reasonable changes, and you bump your maximum to 1 TB. Then someone is trying to deploy docker containers that run VMs, which have 1.5 TB images. It's to interface with legacy systems that are infeasibly difficult to improve. But the vhd is a single sile, so now you have a single layer maximum size of 1.5 TB. But since the 10 GB body size is a possible attack vector in and of itself, what's the security benefit of having any maximum size limit at this point?

It's the wrong approach. Instead, your system should gracefully handle objects of arbitrary size. Security should be enforced by cryptographically enforced access controls and quotas.


It's essentially the arbitrariness of that 10,000 number that I'm queasy about.

e.g. When I thought of a "reasonable" maximum number of attachments on an email I'd probably say 64.


"When I thought of a reasonable maximum number of attachments on an email I'd probably say 64."

We should not be talking of a "reasonable" maximum at all.

Rather, the maximum should be orders of magnitude away from the "reasonable".

At this distance, any arbitrariness quickly fades into meaninglessness.

Detached from the "reasonable" usage, the maximum then becomes informed by processing cost and complexity analysis, which are more concrete.


This assumes (and likely correctly assumes, in most cases) that 'reasonable limit' and 'probable system limit' are orders of magnitude apart.

I think that may not always be true though. Especially for highly variable workloads.

How many requests per seconds does your site handle on average vs how many can it handle? What about spikes?

If your previous peak is at 10 rps and you can probably handle 20 rps, when should you start dropping connections to keep the site up?

Most systems are designed to have small margins, for cost purposes, so I imagine this sort of situation might come up quite a bit.


I would disagree, a sensible limit that cannot overwhelm the machine even if a multi threaded server is processing its maximum number of emails, should be enforced.

The correct response to a breach of this limit would be for a reply email to explain the limit and why the email was rejected.

The user then could send multiple emails with their attachments, and the system can be sized to handle e.g. 24 threads processing 64 attachments of a maximum size of e.g. 4096kb

That's how you ensure a system sized to your hardware and ensure maximum throughput for all users.


"That's how you ensure a system sized to your hardware and ensure maximum throughput for all users."

Sure, I think we are actually in agreement. That's exactly what I meant by "processing cost and complexity analysis".


It can be a random number between 64 and 10000, inclusive, the arbitrariness of it is the point: there is a bound; the (loop/size/whatever) is not unbounded.

But that's just from the 'security' perspective - if it is a low number then users are likely to hit it and complain, and for bug tracing I suspect everyone would want the number to be constant.

> The only problem with this approach that I have encountered is that is requires defining fairly arbitrary limits that are either so small that some user will inevitably run into them or so large that you're not getting as much protection as you think.

Some sort of lazy or other on-demand evaluation can help a lot here. You set the limits large, and then only evaluate the part of it that's actively being accessed.


> The only problem with this approach that I have encountered is that is requires defining fairly arbitrary limits that are either so small that some user will inevitably run into them or so large that you're not getting as much protection as you think.

Would an answer be to have limits that are tunable? I.e., something like "Attachment limit exceeded. Enter new temporary attachment limit for re-scanning: _____"?


Never done before (also i pick magic numbers from the air) but probably the idea is to look at Statistics of the data distribution and pick by Pareto the upper bound that cover more?

Is this data available? One simple one: How much long must be a name in a database field?


> Every loop should have a limit. There should be no unbounded object allocation.

I’ve recently created some mini-languages (DSL’s) for everyone users to control various software and I’ve found that using a synchronous transformational language[1], which has no unbounded loops (or anything) and is therefore guaranteed to complete, and which runs in a stop-the-world fashion (ie each invocation acts as if atomic, whether it actually is or if implementation tricks like transaction rollback + retries are used) makes it easier both to develop and for end users especially ones who aren’t programmers. I’m a huge fan of this approach for correct and secure software.

[1] https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synchronous_programming_lang...


One of the things I learned working on software with millions of users is that ANYTHING that does not have a limit will eventually be abused by someone - often not even maliciously.

Got a feature that lets users add multiple additional options? Someone will use it to add 10,000 options, and now pages which display them in a <select> widget will slow to a crawl.


"Anything that does not have a limit will eventually be abused by someone."

There should be a law named for this.

What about Limit's Law?


The Law of Limits would probably be better. X's Law only really works well as a name if X is itself a name. Law of X is better when X is a topic.

I put limits on things in the D compiler. One thing is certain, I'll get a bug report because the limit was exceeded. Who'd have thought programs would be built with a hundred thousand symbols in them? Or that 65,000 lines in a source file isn't enough?

>Or that 65,000 lines in a source file isn't enough?

I would hope that was from auto generated code somehow..?!!


I've long since stopped caring why people do that, I just fix it so their programs work :-)

> Every loop should have a limit. There should be no unbounded object allocation.

See also total functional programming, which applies the same logic to runtime.


"Here is a book I read that I thought was good. Here are the things I liked most about it. Here is a high level understanding of why they're great."

I love when people write articles like this. Thank you Henrik!


Thanks chias, that makes me happy!!

I heard a good point about why some numeric thing in your project domain (say, InvoiceNumber) should not be a primitive int: Making it a primitive int implies that ALL the operations available on a primitive int make sense. But it can never make sense to, for example, divide one InvoiceNumber by another InvoiceNumber!

Using primitive types “too much” is a frequent anti-pattern. It has a name: Primitive Obsession (https://wiki.c2.com/?PrimitiveObsession)

I think people do it because it is quite some work to implement proper value types in common languages like JavaScript, Java and C#.

Languages like F# or Kotlin give it to you almost for free.

The rule of thumb is exactly as you observed: if values have different semantics they should have different types.


Scott Wlaschin goes into detail about this pattern in F# both on his website [1] and in his book, "Domain Modelling Made Functional". The difference between F# and C# in this regard is quite spectacular.

[1]: https://fsharpforfunandprofit.com/posts/conciseness-type-def...


Creating perfect types for every single input is also an anti-pattern. Most of our needs fall somewhere between "works pretty well" and "formally verified". Riding herd on the type system to prove ever more invariants about your system is usually a waste of time.

It's reasonable to put a little more effort into it along API lines. But there's a reason that the compiler doesn't make it easy to define an integer type that can hold values between -7 and 923091.


I remember taking time to make Radian and Degree classes just to make the code clean. Because it was a simple project, it was 10% of the lines but totally worth it.

Interesting, but there are quite a few bits that are Java-specific. I'm thinking in particular about exposing mutable objects: they mention that even if you expose an immutable reference, the object can still be mutated, same for collections. This is not the case in C++ or Rust, for instance, let alone in Haskell or similar FP languages.

Java-SDK-specific. There are several immutable data type libraries for Java if you should need them. The main downside of immutable data is that it's much slower than mutable data. A performance oriented solution is borrowing in Rust. (Which after a decade of using Scala is one of it's main downsides).

This is one of the cool things about NextSteps' Foundation classes (now Cocoa) where they have explicit immutable collection interfaces.

> Rotate secrets automatically every few hours

Good advice!

> Repave servers and applications every few hours. This means redeploying the same software – if an attacker has compromised a server, the deploy will wipe out the attacker’s foothold there

Yes, but keep in mind that the same attacker will be able to run the same attack successfully again, as long as they have an attack vector.

> Repair vulnerable software as soon as possible (within a few hours) after a patch is available.

Very good advice, and for that you need somebody to update vulnerable libraries and OS packages - like what Linux distributions do - unless you want to maintain hundred of packages by yourself.


> the same attacker will be able to run the same attack successfully again, as long as they have an attack vector

I'm reminded of 'fileless malware'. A virus can reside exclusively in volatile memory. Worst case here would be to have a set of servers continually reinfecting each other even as you continually repave. I imagine the solution to that would be to repave the whole set and then switch over, like double-buffering. (Of course, not using files isn't exactly a strength here, but it seems apropos.)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fileless_malware


>> Repave servers and applications every few hours.

> Yes, but keep in mind that the same attacker will be able to run the same attack successfully again

Exactly. Detecting that deployed files were tampered with can be tricky (one has to take updates into account, and some attacking code may be able to detect this analysis and nurture it with the original version of the files).


As an aside, s/nurture/neutralize/ eh? I'm seeing more and more malapropisms in online text. Has some common auto-correct thing gotten aggressive in guessing, badly, at misspelled words? (Auto-incorrect.)

s/nurture/neutralize/, indeed.

No auto-correct culprit here, that's plain and simple self-incorrect (!): English isn't my native language.


Ah, no prob. It's funny though because the two words are almost opposite in meaning. :-)

Nice to see this on HN. I interviewed the authors back in October[1] (in Swedish) and I found their take on designing in security very interesting.

[1] https://kompilator.se/017/


What programming language would cause least friction for providing discrete types for all domain primitives or even all handled data?

Ada does a great job in this regard. Using some examples in the article:

>> For example, say that you want to represent the number of books ordered. Instead of using an integer for this, define a class called Quantity. It contains an integer, but also ensures that the value is always between 1 and 240

The Ada code to implement this is:

type Quantity is new Integer range 1 .. 240;

>> instead of just using a string, define a class called UserName. It contains a string holding the user name, but also enforces all the domain rules for a valid user name. This can include minimum and maximum lengths, allowed characters etc.

The Ada code to implement this is:

with Ada.Strings.Bounded; package UserName is new Ada.Strings.Bounded.Generic_Bounded_Length (Max => UserName_Max_Length);

Dynamic predicates or even a string subtype could be used to further refine the UserName definition depending on exactly what restrictions are needed.

While it's not perfect, Ada does make it pretty easy to specify constraints on data types and will complain loudly when the constraints are violated.


As an addendum, some of those features are also possible on Pascal/Modula variants, although not as expressive as Ada.

Oh my god. I wish C# had this.

Ada is pretty much still the only language that has this.

> Ada is pretty much still the only language that has this.

Common Lisp does too:

    (deftype quantity () '(integer 0 240))
    (defun foo (x)
      (declare (type quantity x))
      (1+ x))
    (foo 1) → 2
    (foo -1) → ERROR
    (defun valid-username-p (string)
      (and (< 8 (length string) 24)
           (every (lambda (char)
      (find char "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789-_=./" :test #'char=))
    string)))
    (typep "foo" 'username) → NIL
    (typep "foobarbaz" 'username) → T
    (typep "foobar-baz" 'username) → T
    (typep "foobar-baz " 'username) → NIL
Common Lisp is pretty awesome.

Well, except for the fact that it's Common Lisp. ;)

Pascal:

    type
        Quantity = 1 .. 240;
        Colors = (Red, Green, Blue);
        Pixels = array [1..1024, 1..768, Colors] of Byte;
Just a small example how its type system already so much better than C, although not as good as Ada.

It's really not helpful to put examples here that are basically Animal IS Dog level of argumentation. Making toy types like that may help to convince some beginners, but really these features are just unflexible. They work if you're not doing any arithmetic on these values, in which case the type safety is not really needed in the first place. Otherwise (if you're doing arithmetic) they're very much a chore, making code more verbose and in many cases raising complexity to the point where you're starting to introduce enterprisey uber-complicated systems that can easily lead to many thousand lines of boilerplate for solutions that are looking for an actual problem.

And overall, Pascal's type system is NOT so much better. Not strictly better at all, if at all any better. It's a chore to do the simplest things, starting from the mess that is the various types of strings, to a confusing memory management story, continuing with extremely verbose type declaration syntax (which requires to add many additional names), to the mess that is 0-based vs 1-based indexing, and let me not start with the messy object systems that were put on top in Delphi.

If you ask me it's definitely WORSE over all, although for example Delphi has nice aspects to it, especially in the IDE.

Oh yeah, and if Ada was ever adopted by a significant adoption of programmers, then they probably have committed suicide in the meantime.


Yeah not every developer is able to cope with programming languages that promote engineering best practices.

By the way, better check your github issues.


Check your github issue answers! Thank you for checking the project finally, as promised :-) https://github.com/jstimpfle/language/issues/2

I don't know how much effort you put into finding this, but the result feels almost like a certificate of quality to me and confirmed my opinion that this style of coding is pretty f*ing safe in practice. And that while I spent definitely less than 1% time on debugging memory issues (running valgrind twice, according to my git history, compared to working on this project during 7 months, initially 2.5 months full time, leading to an estimate of about 500h of development time).


OCaml, F#, Haskell, Elm, ... (anything with lightweight notation to define sum types [sometimes with only 1 variant], and a module system to limit who can construct them)

There's a whole well-reviewed book on exactly this: https://pragprog.com/book/swdddf/domain-modeling-made-functi...


Rust and Swift can also be added to this list.

TypeScript is surprisingly good at this. It's not popular as a backend language, but shows that your choices aren't limited to pure FP languages and low-level systems programming languages.

Typescript is explicitly bad at this; it is structurally typed, not nominally typed, meaning its effectively useless at enforcing domain guards.

See the same program in flow [1] (nominally typed) and TypeScript [2] (structurally typed).

In the case of flow the type can only be constructed with the class -thus enforcing the guards - whereas in TypeScript I can accidently (or deliberately) bypass all guards by having a class with an equivalent structure.

[1] https://flow.org/try/#0MYGwhgzhAEAKD2ECWAXJA3ApgSQHYswHNMAna...

[2] https://typescript-play.js.org/#code/MYGwhgzhAEAKD2ECWAXJA3A...


There are ways to enforce nominal typing in TS [1]

  type Brand<K, T> = K & { __brand: T }

  type USD = Brand<number, "USD">
  type EUR = Brand<number, "EUR">

  const usd = 10 as USD;
  const eur = 10 as EUR;

  function gross(net: USD, tax: USD): USD {
    return (net + tax) as USD;
  }

  gross(usd, usd); // ok
  gross(eur, usd); // Type '"EUR"' is not assignable to type '"USD"'.
[1] https://michalzalecki.com/nominal-typing-in-typescript/#appr...

Thats pretty cool, but it comes with a series of issues:

* It uses an arguably invalid construct "K & { __brand: T }", where K is not an object, is an empty intersection. The fact that typescript allows casting a number to this type is concerning.

* Typescript currently allows "{} as USD" for non-object "K"'s but this will throw up serious issues down the line (obj is not number etc.); this is a likely error after validating JSON for example.

* Similarly typescript will allow you to bypass the guards for primitive types by using the structurally invalid value "{__brand: 'USD'}", or bypass them for object types using a structurally valid form with a "__brand: 'USD'" member. Which is more concerning I don't know.

* The type system now believes you have a member "__brand" that you don't actually have.

* In summary, you cannot enforce the guards through the type system.

That said, this is an interesting hack that, assuming your developers aren't trying to hurt you and you don't use it for primitives, could help get some extra safety in there. However the absurdity of the intersection looms heavily over it, I wouldn't bet on this working in a few years...


I’ve found F# to be good in this regard. Can’t claim that it would have the least friction, however.

Not saying it's the least friction, but Golang can accomplish this pretty easily with interfaces, structs and receivers. In Haskell, you can use phantom types to accomplish this in really elegant way, as is illustrated here: https://wiki.haskell.org/Phantom_type.

And a related question: How far is too far and/or impractical?

I just recently was working on a backend application and was modeling the database entities. The project uses UUIDs as primary keys. Should each entity have its own primary key type? `Location` gets a `LocationId`, User gets a 'UserId', etc, etc, where they're really all just wrappers around UUID?

Honestly, I thought about doing that a bunch of times during the start of the project, but I was pretty sure I'd get some harsh, sideways, glances from the rest of the team.


Yes. This is exactly what we do at work.

It makes sure that you never pass a `LocationId` where a `UserId` is expected; the type system literally will not allow it.


I've always thought that a language like Idris based on Dependent Types would by far be the best language for this.

The problem is a non-trivial one even for 'simple' things like a person's name. Having a rule that takes in languages, special characters, spaces etc is hard.


> I've always thought that a language like Idris based on Dependent Types would by far be the best language for this.

As someone who loves the idea of dependent types, it seems to me that this is the best theoretical solution, but maybe not the best practical solution. If solving a simple-seeming domain problem involves modelling, not just first-order types, but the whole theory of dependent types, then I think people are going to start looking for escape hatches rather than upgrading their mental models.


Thank you, both insights help me in pondering how to ever better ensure quality.

I think most statically typed languages should be good for this.

Static typing isn't really the only thing here. Strong typing would also be good.

E.g. C has a very weak type system, which is static. There's a lot of implicit conversion going on. Also the expressiveness of the type system is very limited (in C++ also).

OCaml, F#, Haskell and other functional candidates are strongly and statically typed, with very expressive type systems.

Idris with it's dependent types would be ideal and goes even further than the above.

In embedded most likely ADA and Rust offer strong enough static type systems.


> C has a very weak type system, which is static. There's a lot of implicit conversion going on. Also the expressiveness of the type system is very limited (in C++ also).

It is true that the subset that C++ shares to C has too many implicit conversions, but you can do much better.

For example in C++ you can use enum class to define strongly typed integrals that do not implicitly convert to the basic types.


Enum classes are a good first step, but C++ is still very relaxed on integer and float conversions.

I just wish I could use rust or ADA at work.


Agree, strongly typed languages are best suited for this as it usually allows to embed business domain invariants into the type system which can be checked at compile time.

Rust does a great job in that regard and is not too slow.


> Rotate secrets automatically every few hours

How is this helpful? To automate it means there is another system that could be attacked and it‘s a valuable one as it manages all the secrets, or not? What‘s the story?


My personal experience, over 20 years, is that if something like credential rotation isn't automated, it simply doesn't happen. If it does happen, it's a major hassle, probably doesn't get done correctly (causes downtime, something gets missed, probably isn't documented, etc.). Also, there's a huge organizational inertia against doing it. So, for example, when an employee leaves, if you don't have this automated, it likely doesn't happen because "why would we do all this work, it's not like they were a bad person and they aren't stupid".

If you automate this and run it on an automated schedule < 30 days then it is pretty likely that it won't be causing downtime unexpectedly, that you'll have monitoring in place to make sure it actually gets done, that, even if you forget to trigger it for a specific reason (e.g., aforesaid person leaves the organization) it will happen within a reasonable period of time.

In terms of securing such a system... you need to make sure that you separate the system into appropriate pieces with limited access. So, for example, you want a job that is run with an account that only has access to rotate the credentials. It can't use them for anything, just rotate them. Services that consume those credentials should not be able to update them, just use them. You can then ensure that the process that rotates credentials executes in a highly locked-down part of your infrastructure.

Indeed, automating this process also encourages you to create processes with limited access, rather than relying on administrators who have so many responsibilities, you probably just throw them in the equivalent of wide-open sudoers file and call it a day.

It sounds complicated, but if you have decent abstractions, this kind of stuff is actually pretty easy to accomplish.


It sounds complicated, but if you have decent abstractions, this kind of stuff is actually pretty easy to accomplish.

I'd be interested in seeing any end-to-end examples of how people are doing this in practice.

For example, suppose you're maintaining a SaaS application and you have a private key to access some third party API that certain parts of your back end code need. How do you automate this process, so you change your private key on a regular schedule and update all affected hosts so your application code picks up the new one?

Ideally this needs to avoid introducing risks like a single point of failure, a new attack surface, or the possibility of losing access to the API altogether if something goes wrong. Assuming the old key is immediately invalidated when you request a new one via some API, you also need a real time way of looking up the current active key from any of your application hosts when they need it, again without creating single points of failure, etc.

No doubt this could be done with enough work, but it doesn't feel like a trivial problem.


The key rotation issue where there are extra complications around synchronizing multiple keyholders to use the updated credential is neatly solved by having two keys, both valid, and rotating one at a time only after all nodes that need it have moved to the new one.

Sure, if the API you're dealing with supports that then it's easy. But if it doesn't, you have a non-trivial timing problem.

I would say that an API that requires authorization keys is incomplete if it doesn't provide the tools to manage them securely. How could a service even offer scalability and security if it doesn't support two keys with rotation? It's a "non-trivial problem" because consistent, available, distributed API key rotation is not just hard, it's impossible. (See: CAP)

That doesn't solve your problem, but it means that you should take this complaint to whatever API service offering you are using.


If the skeleton of your system starts with these processes in place, then you can evolve the arch while maintaining these invariants. If something is an invariant rule, then it needs to exist at the start of the system's life. If you patch the system later, it won't have proper coherence.

Two ways in which this is helpful. The list is not exhaustive:

1. The system that gives a service to the public is publicly accessible by default. The system that rotates its credentials it doesn't need to be; it can sit behind your firewall listening only on one port for ssh, with firewall rules allowing access only from a bastion host.

2. The credential rotator also connects to your server and drops credentials into it; you don't call from your server to the credentials rotator, because see Point 1 above. This limits the attack surface.

You're right that everything is potentially vulnerable, and so would the credential rotator system. However, by rotating secrets this way, you shift the locus of security to a smaller place that you can defend much better.


I actually think it talking about a case where the rotator and the rotated are both in same place security wise, Like a schedule task to change login salt, both on the same vm\docker etc.

Same goes to 2 apps connecting with a shared secret, making both of them change it wont expose any more components but will add additional layer of security (like google authenticator)


It's a security stance. Without rotating the secrets automatically, it becomes more likely that somebody will share a secret.

During a breach, if each service gets their own secrets, it becomes easier to trace the entrypoints and which secret go compromised. Once the system is closed again the attacker automatically looses access to everything after 4h.


The sad truth is that we very rarely find out about a hack when it happens. Depending on the study, companies generally find out about it 6mo - 3yr after a hack starts, and usually it’s accidental that the company finds out. Rotating secrets buys you time by frustrating your attacker a little more and potentially giving you a little more signal to find among the noise in your alerts.

Credential rotation processes are yet another layer of “defense in depth” — the more layers you have, the more secure you can be.

As you rightly point out, it adds complexity. Having a credential generator+rotator means you are more resilient to the fallibility of humans choosing bad credentials or too busy/lazy to do the task.


Not at all, it's very valuable. It constantly clears out old credentials.

This text remembers me of some techniques used on qmail, which has a great security record.


I like the book, but in the other hand I don't like some parts of it. It seems that they circle around DDD and repeating the same concepts. You can find many more DDD related books than this one.

I was expecting something more of security related content and mitigation tactics.


Customers have repeatedly and historically valued features over quality (for most niches). If somebody finds a magic formula to have both for a good price, this may change. But so far it hasn't proved consistently possible.

I will agree that a well-trained and well-coordinated set of individual software builders can occasionally pull it off economically, but it requires too many things to go right in terms of organization and staff: a lucky accident. Most IT shops are semi-dysfunctional because the usual frailness of human nature wins out over rationality the majority of the time. Dilbert™ is life, life is Dilbert™.


At least temporarily, hopefully for some number of years, people's risk assessment philosophy will have changed. Maybe we will start paying attention to global warming and the level of effort needed to avoid catastrophe.

Nope. As a species we tend to over-prepare for the "last war", rather than basing them on actual risk probabilities.

"Consistent at creation" is also known in the Haskell community by the phrase "make illegal states unrepresentable".

This technique should be more widely shared. I stumbled across it years ago in Python, but it can be expressed in nearly any language.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Substructural_type_system


Interesting stuff here. I'm glad to see that some of the conclusions I came up to over time turned out to be named and well-understood best practices. But it seems I have more work to do.

My favourite line from this is:

“Any integer between -2 billion and 2 billion is seldom a good representation of anything.”

I think that's something Ada got really right.




Guidelines | FAQ | Support | API | Security | Lists | Bookmarklet | Legal | Apply to YC | Contact

Search: