And there is also the fact that larger cities, like Moscow and SPB, have
a deficit of beds, while smaller towns have a surplus. Most hospitals
were planned and built in the USSR, and a large part of the the
population has moved into cities since then, leaving the whole system
Japan has not had a surplus since the early 90's and it seems unlikely it will generate one this decade , challenging traditional economic wisdom on the consequences of financing your country by printing money (the Japanese central bank is key buyer of government issued bonds).
As a result, Japan has the highest government debt level in the developed word, well over 200% of GDP .
although the state of the UK seems to suggest that this is a necessary rather than sufficient condition.
As others have pointed out, I suspect the way beds are counted is key.
ICUs often have step down units and high dependency units and so on. The way these are counted is going to matter.