> To be effective, researchers have found, praise needs to be specific.
> Just as the research promised, this focused praise helped him see strategies he could apply the next day.
This strongly reminds me of how successful companies experiment to improve their products' performance. These experiments, by definition are trial-and-error, and involve mistakes and backtracking, because they don't yet have enough data to develop a theory that predicts exactly what will work. Over time, as it does become formalized, that aspect is no longer profitable because then anyone can do it.