A video that everyone should take the time to watch is Conrad Wolfram's TED talk on teaching students with computers (http://www.ted.com/talks/conrad_wolfram_teaching_kids_real_m...). While we may use computers now to enhance the learning methods, we haven't taken advantage of the content/knowledge computers have and can supply for us. The majority of what is taught in grades K-12 in science and math could be done by a computer in almost no time with increased accuracy. Why wouldn't we take advantage of that?
The gist of Wolfram's talk is that we are teaching students mechanics (which computers can do more efficiently) when we should be teaching them the higher orders of thinking and problem solving.
Against popular belief, concepts can be understood without learning the nitty-gritty mechanics. One could solve a quadratic word problem without solving the quadratic equation themselves, and still understand the problem just as well. Think about it: do you need to learn how the engine of a car works before you can drive it?
While all of this is not entirely relevant to the article, I humbly believe that the future of education should be and will be (if everything goes right) orders of magnitudes higher in efficiency as students will spend more time learning the right material. I'm not sure how much the Khan Academy will play a role in that...
No, but you'd be a much better driver if you did.
Understanding the basics of a science, especially math, is extremely important to fully grasp the higher level topics. I don't believe one can conceptually understand a topic without understanding the fundamentals that it builds upon.
Unfortunately I see philosophies as you describe in my local school system (Chicago Public Schools), especially in poverty stricken neighborhoods. High school kids are given scientific calculators and taught algebra/pre-calc when they can't even add or multiply single digit numbers. Similarly, there are pushes to move more "computer learning" into grade school, despite extremely poor reading and math proficiency.
I can draw parallels in my job as well - it's remarkable how poor most programmers' basic math skills are. Someone who can do the chain rule is regarded as a genius. With only a strong grasp of fundamentals, I feel that many engineers could be substantially more successful.
Agreed, but it might still be a good idea to change the order in which you teach them: first learn to drive, then learn how the car works inside. There is ample evidence that the human brain is better capable of understanding if it understands the big picture first (for proof see: "The pyramid principle" by M.Minto)
And I think that the time is better spent learning to drive. That's just an unfounded opinion, but at least I can see it as such. Do you have any evidence that understanding engines makes drivers "much better"?
Yes, but one simple computer animation could give you the same understanding of the engine as if you had built the engine yourself. Computers can give you an understanding of calculations in addition to doing the work.
> I don't believe one can conceptually understand a topic without understanding the fundamentals that it builds upon.
This is probably the biggest argument against using computers to calculate for you. However, if you haven't already, watch Wolfram's video that I linked to above as he clearly explains how this belief is not necessarily true. The very rudimentary basics will need to be learned by calculating, but anything above the fundamentals can be understood without the calculations.
> Similarly, there are pushes to move more "computer learning" into grade school, despite extremely poor reading and math proficiency.
I think this computer learning is different than the learning I'm talking about. Schools currently use computers as a medium to enhance the current education system. They use them to make calculating more interactive and fun. I think that computers should actually do the calculations, rather than "tricking" the students into doing the work.
Generally, I agree with this. But if everybody were to adopt that philosophy, eventually we'd get to the point where nobody could actually implement the calculations for those high level concepts. And then what happens when you need to update the software that's been doing all of that for you?
Does everybody need to know how to calculate? Probably not, above arithmetic and some basic algebra. But a lot of people do, and that needs to be included in their education somewhere.
You're probably aware of all that, but I felt it warrants making explicit.
I think speleding is onto something, though: http://news.ycombinator.com/item?id=2213985
We all believe that calculations need to be taught first, but maybe it is not necessary. Learning the calculations after the bigger concepts has its own advantages. Everyone could start with general education, and those that need it could be taught the more advanced (or one might say, basic) calculations.
It worked very well for me personally and gave me quite a few "A-HA" moments. I'm not sure it helped with my driving however ;-)
That must be one impressive animation.
Take an elementary matter such as convergence of infinite series. If you've never hand-computed a truncated power series for e^x term by term and noted its rapid convergence rate for positive x, I dare say your understanding of basic calculus is impoverished. Once you've seen the convergence first hand for particular values of x, the proof of its general convergence immediately suggests itself. But if you've only seen the abstract proof, you would probably never have realized that the e^x power series has extremely initial poor convergence for negative x. (Try it for x = -10 to see what I mean. Poor convergence and massive cancellation. That's why numerical analysts always evaluate e^x as 1/e^(-x) for negative x.)
The way it actually happens is that once you start majoring in mathematics, you will rarely see any computations. It's entirely possible to take a linear algebra course for mathematicians without ever row-reducing a non-trivial matrix by hand.
Back to teaching kids. If you take a constructivist approach to learning then computing by hand simply cannot be avoided. You'll never have a student notice on their own that, for example, you can quickly multiply x by 9 by subtracting x from 10x unless they tinker with numbers directly. You come across patterns like that by doing the tedious work the hard way and looking for short-cuts.
The thing is that you come across short-cuts like those on the larger and broader concepts as well. Tinkering around with numbers is great, but perhaps tinkering around with concepts is even better.
There would be downsides to the reform. Students may not know that notice 9x = 10x - x as a calculation shortcut, but they then again, they would never have to calculate 9x past a certain value of x. Computers can easily do that - let the students discover that x needs to be multiplied by 9, and then the let the computer do the straightforward math.
My stance is that mathematics is first of all useful in the small for normal people. Everyday arithmetic, basic accounting, that sort of thing. But beyond that we need to teach mathematics for the same reason we teach art, music and literature. For achieving this goal, even if what we aim for is an appreciation of general principles, I was arguing that properly directed hand computation and concrete problem solving plays an important part. Concrete tinkering engages your brain in a complementary way to reflecting on nakedly abstract principles.
The rudimentary basics are important for everyone, and mostly those who will not pursue math-related careers. However, it is the content that is taught after the basics (middle school and high school curriculum) that could be spent on more advanced areas with less calculation work.
I feel embarrassed expressing all of these ideas with little background to support them. I'm sure you are a lot more knowledgeable on this subject than I am, so thanks for taking the time to acknowledge to my arguments and discuss them with me. ;)
We don't need to teach more, we need to teach better. We should not chase nominal accomplishments such as whether students have "covered" differential equations and discriminants by high school's end. There is already too much of that. The same is even more true for the foundational material taught in middle school. If you skate across the basics in an effort to cover more, earlier, you risk serious damage to the students' development in mathematics and science.
The problem all comes down to 10% curriculum and 90% teachers. Curriculum only seriously concerns me when it overconstrains good teachers and prevents them from doing their job.
I agree with this in part but the problem is that relying on good teachers is not something that can be scaled across countries. I'm not sure if the introduction of computers in the national education might help solve this problem, but I'm hopeful.
Perhaps like art and music, we should only be teaching beyond the very basics to those who actively seek it out. We don't require all highshool students to learn how to play the piano, read music, or draw nudes, so why should they all learn how to invert a matrix or find its determinant by hand?
This doesn't work for me. After a little bit of tedium my mind quickly switches through "just fight your way through this" and no more insight will be gained. All the math shortcuts I know I either read about or discovered while playing with numbers on my own time without any homework deadlines.
I'm skeptical of curriculum reform that seeks to excise an important source of learning for a sizeable subset of students.
(I am 23 now. I left school when I was 17 to pursue a career in the gamedev industry. Daycare was not the place for me, and I haven't regretted dropping out.)
I worked it out at around 15-18k hours (depending on where you live and variations in school day length).
(365 days) * (24 hours) * (12 years) = ~105k hours, or 70k waking hours
It isn't until fifth or sixth grade that you can really start finding a passion.
I'd say I managed to spend 5k to 10k hours on learning about technology and programming. I had to completely ignore high school. I literally slept through it. Teachers gave up trying to get me to try; I was also a social outcast.
Besides, until kids hit puberty, their brains aren't ready for higher orders of thinking. What they are good at is memorization and mechanics. The more mechanics they learn and the more they memorize as little kids, the better equipped they will be for higher order thinking as teens and adults.
I disagree. The problem is that you don't know that you understand a concept until you actually can apply your conceptual understanding to accomplish something. The world is full of people who "understand" quantum mechanics or relativity in terms of half-baked analogies and are unable to apply those concepts to anything but pseudo-scientific discussions.
Real conceptual understanding comes form having worked with the subject area enough that you have built your own conceptual framework. You can't really just teach someone a conceptual framework, because the words you use to describe your framework will likely be interpreted in a completely different way by someone else.
This is why all such material should come with commentaries by thoughtful students which explain it in different ways and link to additional resources. And with commentaries on the commentaries, etc. (We all have different misconceptions.)
There also needs to be a mechanism for rapidly correcting errors. Not every few years but every few days. (Text books are full of errors.)
All of which suggests that we need more educational material which is online, open source and wikified.
Instead of a homework assignment like this:
1. compute this integral.
2. compute this integral.
3. compute this integral.
4. compute this integral.
5. compute this integral.
Students should be getting homework assignments like this:
1. compute this integral.
2. write a procedure to compute any integral.
Where do you draw the line?
Instead of just one line, you have to draw two lines. One would be on the more elementary end of the spectrum. Students have to learn the rudimentary basic calculations (or memorization) in order to function well in everyday life and higher levels of education. Simple addition, subtract, division, multiplication, estimation, understanding of relationships would be necessary. As much as I adore algebra, it could be left to the computer. Therefore the first line would be drawn at a point where the material does not show up in everyday scenarios.
The next line would be drawn at the opposite end of the spectrum where humans need to come in and do the higher orders of thinking. Given the right software, students would be able to visualize and understand the basics of the calculations and their relationships without actually calculating them. They would therefore be able to use computers in more applied problems - ones that they would be confronted in their careers later on in life. A few experiments could be conducted to find exactly where this line would be drawn. It would be at the point where humans do the smallest amount of calculation work while still having a solid understanding. Computers may be able to work past this line, but they would end up assisting the students to the point where the students lose the understanding of the concepts.
If the US and other countries truly put the time, money, and effort into this reform, I'm sure they could be quite successful.
However, another tricky thing to think about would be transitioning into this new and reformed type of education...
However it is important that they know enough to check if the answer they get is at least reasonable and probably correct. So even if they can't solve the problem exactly they really should know how to show that the answer must be between 1/sqrt(2) and 1, for example, so that they know they made a mistake when the computer tells them the answer is 0.3475.
Talented educators (non-traditional and traditional) and technology are going to keep coming together in new and interesting ways. There will be lots of failures, but Khan Academy will not be the only success. The article doesn't mention things like MIT's effort in this field that predate Khan's efforts etc.
The key differentiator is that these are aimed at under-grad and grad students and are simple conversion of what happens in a course, where the internet is only incidental.
Khan Academy videos are aimed primarily at school students and are much shorter, more focused and completely based on the internet. The tests are geared for online testing, the metrics collected are then displayed online etc.
Just to prevent readers from taking that statement literally, only a small minority of courses offer all these materials. (e.g., see --you can see by the icons on the left which materials are available for which courses.) Most only offer lecture notes, and even those are generally very incomplete.
What MIT has done with OCW is outstanding, and I personally have learned a lot from many courses already, but they still have quite a ways to go to meet such a comprehensive claim. More funding and enthusiasm for the effort is still very much needed.
Education's past is a series of textbooks (plus supplemental info and exercises), providing a clear path to learning. Khan Academy, such as it now stands, is a video analog of textbook chapters as discrete units all in an unorganized pile. Until more is done in the neglected areas, Khan Academy will remain an extremely valuable resource, but not a curriculum. Even if/when these missing bits are done this will only be the future of delivery of fairly traditional materials.
The real future of education is a computerized personal tutor that provides individual assessment, guidance, alternate explanations where comprehension lacks, encouragement to pursue natural ability and enthusiasm, etc. That's pretty ambitious, but not at all inconceivable. We're close enough to being able to achieve it that we should hold up this ideal goal so we know the right direction as we build the pieces.
In Neal Stephenson's "The Diamond Age", a plot device (not central), is The Young Lady's Illustrated Primer. It is an adaptive AI tutor. To realize TYLIP, hard AI problems will need to be solved. Yet, it is possible the iPad is a big step towards a simpler Primer.
"TYLIP is...a book that is powered by a computer so advanced it’s almost magical, and it teaches children everything. It does this through a fully interactive story. It teaches you how to read, how to do maths, it teaches you morals, ethics, even self-defence. ‘Diamond Age’ is a very entertaining read, mainly because of the TYLIP."
If you check out the video from that article (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hw5k98GV7po), you'll see a lot of the strides we're making in the areas of individual assessment (mathematics only at the moment), guidance (full breakdown of hints for every problem we dynamically generate), alternate explanations where comprehension lacks (list of all relevant videos next to every problem the student encounters), encouragement (badges and other game mechanics), and more.
As you said: it's ambitious, and we're far from the end. But we're making progress every day and seeing extremely positive reactions in all the teachers and students from our pilot programs.
What few people seem to get is that we don't need to fix education, we need to fix learning. And for that, we need exercises (as any mathematician would tell you; also see deliberate practice). It turns out digital exercises afford a range of interesting opportunities (both the video and article highlight several) for making learning more effective.
Interfaces can change relatively easily so there'll be a bunch of experiments. The exercise model is harder. And more interesting. (I've been trying to figure that out for a while now and discovered a bunch of local minima.) I'm very curious to see how this exercise model works out -- it seems promising from what I can tell.
Regardless of how this works out (not to say I think it won't), this development will raise the bar and the expectations -- both of which has been too low for too long. That is incredibly valuable.
Edit: I just watched the video and I am seriously impressed. This is the right direction. I will be trying this out soon.
Shouldn't you be used to not having a curriculum (and indeed be thriving) if you're really an autodidact?
The structure seems obvious to me. Videos are put in sequences by subject, with pre-requisites coming first. In his physics and finance sequences he frequently calls out a potential video you should watch first to better understand the current concept, otherwise if you know it then it will just trigger the memory anyway. My value from Khan Academy has been from looking at the videos, seeing which ones I already know, and watching the ones I don't know or need review on. I don't need any curriculum; my curriculum is whatever I want or need to learn at the time.
Maybe you want to call the organization of categories unorganized, but if you watch the videos in order of the mega-sequences it's pretty straightforward that it's a similar path you'd find in a textbook. (You don't read chapters of things you already know do you?)
I'll agree with you that Clippy is the future for self-learning. First we need general AI though. (Although Google's simple search is pretty good right now.)
Ha ha! Yes. But I don't think we need defer this until we have strong, general AI. There are steps that can be taken now, with more coming in the near future. None of these will be "the" solution, but they'll be way ahead of where we are now.
Example: currently schools have "remedial" programs in various subjects. A student having trouble with math is assigned to the remedial math program, but not other remedial programs. Ok, now extend that idea by making it more fine-grained, both by topic and proficiency. Algebra would have several areas, each with separate proficiency levels. Design curricula for each area/proficiency, and a reasonable assessment method for placement. Collect feedback on time taken and right/wrong to improve curricula and assessment. No AI, but way better than what we have. It's not at all practical in classrooms, but it's very practical on computers if it's done on a large enough scale to warrant the cost of producing such a system.
And thanks to you and others, I will probably revisit Khan Academy soon.
If we did away with state-controlled curricula I think that'd help in itself. Even the schools where you supposedly "learn what you want" have workbooks you have to follow very orderly to "pass the material". The nature of state-curricula leaves it up to the arbitrary decisions of boards and a handful of teachers instead of experimenting and doing radical changes and letting individual teachers do their own thing to see how it works out. But this is all for a classroom setting.
There are lots of places we can use HI (human) more effectively... The whole Stack Overflow / Yahoo Answers model is great too, adding an interface to auto-connect people via webcam/mic/screensharing would be nifty instead of a series of text messages.
As far as I could see each set of questions allows you to watch associated videos and also links to the prerequisites.
I'll go and investigate :) brb
There are no guarantees, of course.
Maybe, then, it's time to pull back on the hype machine for Khan Academy. I've used it before, and it's wonderful as a student aid, but it basically boils down to free instructional videos. It's a great help, but it's hardly the revolution that the headline makes it out to be.
I think Khan Academy is becoming a whole system of learning rather than just a very large library of free instruction videos.
We're not arrogant enough to think we'll start out by building a generic AI solution to education.
We do know that we have a) a lot of video content that students are constantly watching, b) dynamically generated math exercises that students use to practice every day, and c) some very encouraging in-school pilot programs.
We're using those experiences to learn and expand. The YouTube video linked in the article shows the edges of our progress so far.
I haven't yet seen much effective use of technology in the learning environment that touches anything but the periphery of the formal educational experience. I'd be excited to hear about something better going on!
Much more in various posts of mine (http://bjk5.com/post/2071068737/khan-academy-in-the-classroo...), and more importantly, you can read direct feedback from teachers and students on their Khan Academy blog: http://lasdandkhanacademy.edublogs.org/
...obviously, many more observations will be published when the pilot is done.
It was really inevitable that someone with his abilities would change the way education is delivered by using tools like YouTube. Of course, his teaching style may not be for everyone, but the mere fact that the Khan Academy exists, and is free, gives me great hope for humanity.
There is a chance that the Khan Academy could make the world bad-teacher proof by giving students a resource with high quality guided instruction that includes mechanisms to keep them motivated, and I think that is nearly equally important.
(disclosure: KA Designer)