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While I'm not sure it goes back nearly as far as 100,000 years (it's been a while since I read it), the book Guns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guns%2C_Germs%2C_and_Steel) does a compelling job of exploring why complex civilizations arose in some times and places and not in others.

An aspect I found particularly interesting was the idea that basic physical geography could have played a strong role in determining when and where complex civilizations arose.

You might want to check this video:


(title: African History Disproves “Guns Germs and Steel” by Jared Diamond).

tl;dw: that theory is not as valid as it may seem at first.

An alternative view is "Triumph of the West" by Roberts.


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