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Win32 is still alive and kicking, so any desktop Windows app has at least one "traditional" window (HWND) - that being the top-level one - and it still runs a WndProc, that periodically receives WM_PAINT, telling it which chunks to redraw. There's a compositor sitting above all that, so the complexities of the model are largely redundant, because it no longer needs to handle partial refreshes - it doesn't render directly to the screen.

Most modern GUI frameworks don't use the tree-of-HWNDs anymore, though. Which is to say, the entire visual element tree is handled internally by the framework's own compositor, and the top-level WM_PAINT just renders the resulting bitmap. WPF and Qt do it that way. That said, there's still no shortage of apps that are implemented in terms of native Win32 widgets - pretty much all the non-UWP apps that come with Windows are like that. So when you are looking at, say, Notepad or Explorer, they still fundamentally work the way the article linked to above describes.






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