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Pretty much all windowing toolkits (X11 included) worked that way prior to the mid-90s because while there was at least enough RAM for a framebuffer (unlike say the Atari 2600), it would have been wasteful to have a backing-store for every window.

X11 added the ability to have a backing-store for each window, and the compositor would render them to the display, and Wayland is compositor only.

On another topic, the constraint based GUI systems going back at least to the 80s are similar to react et al., though usually the widget graph was fixed, and only the properties of the widgets were reactive.

Windows was still doing it that way into 00s in XP and 2003, and you could observe it when apps would get a hang in their windows loop, and couldn't process WM_PAINT anymore - you'd get ghosting artifacts moving other windows over the one hanging, because it wouldn't repaint the invalidated areas. It wasn't until Vista that such windows would be rendered using the ghosted version of the last known good state (cached by the compositor).

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