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I would enthusiastically recommend IBM Q [0] and the command-line variant of Hello Quantum [1] to anyone who wants to investigate quantum circuits.

If you start googling (or searching with your engine of choice) about Quantum Logic Gates, Bell States, et c., you'll pick up the basic concepts pretty quickly. Then you can follow the rabbit hole from there.

[0]: https://quantum-computing.ibm.com

[1]: https://www.pythonanywhere.com/gists/a5d885816f7dc042a78df11...

Qiskit[0], the framework that IBM Q uses, also has a awesome community and the introductory textbook called "Learn Quantum Computing using Qiskit" [1]. The "Quantum Algorithms" chapter is thoroughly documented both from theoretical and coding perspective.

[0]: https://qiskit.org/

[1]: https://delapuente.github.io/qiskit-textbook/preface

Are these quantum computers currently powerful enough to tackle things like breaking non-quantum proof encryption?

Short answer is no. Longer answer requires understanding quantum error correction and how long before we get quantum computers with 1000s of qubits.

Short answer: no. Longer answer: currently no.

As long as you don’t need to factor a prime greater than 4088459, absolutely. More seriously, my take is that a lot of the (modest) work on quantum algorithms in industry is to provide financial and some engineering and aerospace domains with potential “off the shelf” algorithms if and when quantum supremacy is achieved for those problems. Right now it’s more of an intellectual exercise, excepting some specific work that can take advantage of quantum annealing approaches.

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