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By "non-jailbroken" you should mean "jailbreakable": it is the existence of the vulnerability that makes the phone insecure, not the user having used an exploit to leverage that vulnerability to do something for them. Like, for no avoidance of doubt: if you are running a version of iOS for which you can download an app-based jailbreak (which has been all jailbreaks for current phones that have been released for years now, all reliant on sandbox escapes), the issue is that the attacker jailbreaks your phone, not that you do; and also, to be explicit, as people also often confuse this, the code I would put in an app for a "back door" capable of letting me jailbreak remotely would not look like exploit code but would look like an innocent bug: maybe a vtable use after free bug on my stack while parsing a network response for which I knew the location of all the required ROP gadgets to exploit (put different "if you want to put a back door in software, just leave yourself a vulnerability you know how to exploit, and then claim you weren't evil, you were just bad at memory management or concurrency... like everyone else).

Just to be clear, you’re saying that FaceApp has a yet unfound component that lets them remotely jailbreak an otherwise un-jailbroken Phone via a published AppStore app? and that they’ve done this in the open on one of the most politically criticized apps short of Facebook?

1) I am saying that your assertion that "There is no threat model for an iPhone app to do nefarious things in an App Store distributed app on a non-jailbroken phone." is a misleading statement that is making a very broad and entirely inaccurate claim about something that I personally don't want anyone confused about (the safety of users jailbreaking their own phone, particularly on these newer devices where the jailbreak developer has very limited ability to mess with the sandbox).

However, 2) I would imagine the probability that FaceApp does not have a vulnerability in it somewhere is extremely low, as in my experience essentially every single app has security flaws in them; the problem in your mental model is that you think someone would "find" a "component" that would be a smoking gun of some form, whereas only an idiot would make a back door something other than a security vulnerability (as essentially every single app has security vulnerabilities). Were any placed there on purpose? No one would ever know.

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