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They're listening to a doppler shifted version of the hydrogen alpha spectral line (~450 THz doppler shifted down to ~30 MHz) down to about the VHF television band (hence the almost "rabbit ears" style antennas). Being on the other side of the Moon shields them from powerful terrestrial transmitters. The massive doppler shift means they're listening (observing) to bubbling atoms of hydrogen closer in time to the Big Bang than what was observed by COBE or WMAP.

https://lambda.gsfc.nasa.gov/product/cobe https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov






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