> They also proved themselves pioneers of what’s sometimes known as patent trolling: the controversial modern practice of suing competitors for infringements that fall beyond the scope of one’s patent.
Let's say that the main issue with patent trolling is that it is basically rent-seeking with patents.
If we agree on that, then choking out competition and stifling innovation through patents should count as a "flavour" of patent trolling, regardless of who invented the patent.
Since that seems to go both against the concept of a free market as well as against copyleft ideologies, I would expect that to be the one thing most can more or less agree on as an issue with patents, and that it is an essential element of patent trolling.
Mind you, I'm not naively saying patents are inherently bad, because without them big companies can just copy small innovators and push them out of business through economies of scale. I honestly don't know what the right solution is here.
They pretty much do anyway.
The patent system doesn't work and should be simply abolished.
Namely that it's relatively easy to get a patent, and that the validity of it is then tested in court. However, often the threat of going to court is what is abused by patent trolls.
In most other countries getting a patent is the hard part.
What the Wright brothers did was like planting a tree and then claiming that the fully grown tree came from what they did. Patent trolling is like adding a leaf to an existing tree and then claiming the entire branch it's sitting on.
Not sure the Wright brothers can be accused of those particular issues
The first question we have to ask is: How do we not like patents to be used?
> its impact on the state of American aviation was indisputably negative.
We don't want patents to be used in a way that deters further research and advancements in that field.
Can we determine if a way of use will do that in the future?
Unfortunately, as we can't see into the future, we don't know.
So we use the next best thing: We try to find patterns that strongly suggest that someone is abusing a patent.
And the pattern that we found is: People who just buy patents (sometimes for just $1) and don't produce their own are more likely to abuse patents.
And that's how we came to today's definition.
But for the past, we can answer the second question. And we should use this as definition if possible.
It’s common for them to change hands for “$1 plus other valuable consideration” to mask the true price. Sometimes that “OVC” might be 999,999 other dollars for example.
I agree in principle, but back then, the granting of a patent was a sort of de-facto legal recognition of the novelty. (Whereas today, it's just recognition that you can fill out the forms correctly.)
There wasn't really the need to litigate that aspect of a case. If the patent was issued, it was legally presumed to be novel.
Which is a main part of the reason why patent trolling has gotten worse: lack of legal certainty that any particular patent is valid.
There is still a de jure presumption of validity for an issued patent, but it only means that when a patentee sues an alleged infringer, the patentee doesn’t have to first prove the patent is valid. An accused infringer will usually challenge the validity of the patent, it just won’t happen at the earliest stage of the trial.
There are no degrees of novelty. An invention is ether novel (new, never been done before) or it’s not.
A patent must also be non-obvious, which is where many of the other inventive characteristics fall.
Patent trolling is using IP with the intention of expoiting outdated laws and an ignorant court system to extort people for money.