I don't think this is a meaningful distinction. Who cares whether the new heuristic is being added by a machine or a human?
You still need to keep feeding the neural network data to learn from, and it will still choke when it sees novel data that doesn't align with the heuristics it developed.
That's the entire reason adversarial AI works. The reason the Trippy T-shirt makes you invisible to some current AI systems is because it exploits the heuristics they've built using data that these systems are unfamiliar with and haven't learned to process yet. If it was possible to build an AI system that could defend against novel attacks, the Trippy T-Shirt wouldn't be able to fool them.