I work in an engineering data science consulting group for a major UK PLC. Almost all of our clients have mainly SQL based data sources, and none of them really require cloud scale. In fact I don't think I have come across a client whose data I can't handle in SQLite on my laptop.
However, the problems we solve do require data scientists - mainly STEM MScs with a smattering of PhDs who are capable of combining statistics, domain knowledge and the ability to work within a variety of organisations and present.
The do however invest early in sufficient data science functions to have a good liaison between the researchers and data acquisition.
I disagree. Data science is largely about applying and interpreting data, and the value of that isn't really dependent on having data that is problematic for RDBMSs due to scale.