Laptops, phones, etc have a poor lifespan because they are frequently discharged from 100% to almost 0%. It is better to discharge them from 100% to 50% and then recharge.
Batteries generate heat during charging and smart phones can get hot during heavy use. Without good enough cooling the lifespan of the battery drops.
It is called SN curve:
It shows a bit different picture for Li-ION that I remembered.
LiPo batteries do not have a memory effect, and you should avoid deep discharges.
A global grid would be an immense coordination problem with tremendous costs. Some form of storage local to each grid is likely to be more cost effective. There are so many storage options, something should be appropriate as the need becomes real: pumped hydro / other mechanical, battery, synthgas (maybe), heat, pressure.
Repeat that cable 9.6 times over 3,459 miles from London to New York would be 66% efficient and cost €5.8b.
If energy is $0.05/kwh in London and you can sell it around the retail rate of $0.12/kwh in New York, your cable will make around $20k/hour ($0.028/kwh,after cable losses). Your cable will pay for itself after 33 years of complete capacity saturation.
With free energy at one side and retail prices on the other, the payoff time narrows to less than 8 years.
This calculation leaves out so much but it was a fun thought experiment.
May I add a proposal to convert the mediteranian sea into a pumped hydro storage with long-term capabilities? It would need the same dam as the Atlantropa, but possibly less extreme.
There are some basins around northern Africa that might be amenable to slight terraforming, or just a re-activation of Operation Plowshare to blow a cavern which has it's rubble content lifted out and then used for subsurface pumped hydro.
Alternatively plan to collapse the cavern roof into itself after filtering persistent radionuclides and waiting for short half-life isotopes to decay. Collapse via conventional quarry techniques (a circle of drilled wells filled with ANFO?) or iteratively with robots that go out towards the center and drill to blast this off somewhat continuously. Then use a nearby water reservoir to pump in-between. Salt content shouldn't matter much except corrosion protection techniques.
It’s clear that solar and battery storage can now provide affordable base load power, and can be deployed rapidly (this project is set to turn up in 2022).
What would make it clear whether solar + battery at this proportion is a viable source of baseload power is output volatility figures for a few years of operation (though one year would probably give a reasonable indication).
Tangent: The industry has a metric, availability factor, to describe what proportion of the time a plant can supply energy - but conventionally it only considers maintenance-related downtime and ignores periods where no energy is produced because of lack of 'fuel', giving figures of 99 and 100% availability for wind and solar respectively. That needs to change if we're going to measure whether renewables can provide suitable baseload power. The alternative, capacity factor, doesn't ignore periods of no generation in the same way, but it penalises dispatchable sources for having excess capacity so it's not great either.
Like it or not tacking on the cost of climate change to power generation is so far from current reality that adding that hypothetical constraint is meaningless. The people making these decisions have real tangible costs that matter right now that they will prioritize in their comparison.
On the flipside, appliances (water heating, fridges, cold-rooms, space-heaters,e tc.) should be encouraged to talk back to the suppliers APIs to indicate likely near-future demand, current constraints and demands and so on, so informing the 'grid' with demand data at micro-scale.
I guess this is something like what people might mean when they speak of making the grid 'more intelligent'...
Guess that's the power of political donations
It doesn't say the specific chemistry but it shows a chart estimating 6000 100% charge/discharge cycles at 1C until it hits 80% capacity.
So for this system that'd be 16 years of full cycles till it wore down to being "only" a 240MWh system.
In reality they'll probably cycle it less aggressively than that (95/5 or 90/10) to meet the expected 25 year lifetime of the overall system.
For anyone who whats to know what SDI stands for it is "Samsung Display Interface".