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Except that even in programming, the name "side-effect" is not too clear. It stems from the fact that subroutines sometimes behave a bit like functions, and when they don't, we call the added behavior a "side effect". If you want to be mathematically precise, subroutines are predicate transformers, and, again, there are no "side effects" (This is a mistake functional programmers make when they speak of referential transparency; most languages are referentially transparent, and that was the whole point of the paper that first introduced the term to programming. They are only not referentially transparent with respect to an incorrect semantic model). The philosophical difference between a subroutine with side effects and a derivative is small.



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